Purpose: The intent of this theory development in nursing sample essay paper assignment is to help students to evaluate theory development in nursing.

Guidelines: Each student will develop a theoretical model that can be used to guide research on your topic from your Review of Theoretical Perspectives paper.
1. From the major theoretical approaches that you described above, choose one theoretical orientation, or theory, that you would like to apply to your study. You may use an existing middle-range theory, you may derive a theory from a grand theory, or you may synthesize one or more theories to create a new middle-range theory. Provide a brief rationale for your choice of theory.

2. Describe the parent theory. Identify the key constructs and relational statements. Include a diagram of the parent theory.

3. Describe your proposed theoretical model.

a. Identify and explain the key concepts in your model and provide conceptual definitions.

b. Identify and explain the relationships between your concepts theory development in nursing sample essay paper.

4. Include a visual model (diagram) of your theory.

5. Using your theory as a guide, develop three testable research questions and three corresponding hypotheses.

6. Write clearly and succinctly. Present your ideas logically. Use transitions. Include an introduction and summary. Adhere to APA style (6th edition), cover sheet, headers, pagination, references, etc. Use APA format and label each section using the evaluation outline below. Use headings below to identify sections of your theory development in nursing sample essay paper.
Theory Development in Nursing
Theory development in nursing is an important aspect that medical practitioners apply in current days. Through precise identification and application of relevant theory constructs, nurses are able to apply and incorporate strategies that ensure desired patient outcomes. The application of theories in nursing is essential since they aid practitioners to predict the possible outcomes of aspects in the medical field. Theory development in nursing is the means by which nurses define the areas that raise concern during the treatment of sick victims. Through a well-guided and theoretically-based investigation, nursing practitioners can carefully scrutinize the specific constructs of a theory and integrate its provisions for better results. Besides, its application ensures the effectiveness of nurses when dealing with the specific phenomena present in the field, through collaboration with other professionals in the field. It is therefore important for health care professionals to develop or evaluate theories, to exercise responsibility, which would guarantee control within the nursing practice theory development in nursing sample essay paper.
Rationale for Theory Choice
The self-efficacy theory previously originated from the social cognitive theory, a model developed by Albert Bandura. The model explains that, behavior, environment and personal factors can influence the self-efficacy of an individual in a variety of ways.  According to Neimeyer (2015) performances, motivation and frustrations related to repeated failures are directly related to behavior.  Self-efficacy philosophies are essential in the human behavioral traits and motivations. These aspects influence directly and indirectly on one’s ability to perform actions in life. In the nursing field, the various educational orientations may lead to confusion in newer clinical settings. Duane & Satre (2014) explains that achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy play a crucial part in the nursing practice and professional development.  It is, therefore, necessary to comprehend the levels of self-efficacy in different educational levels of nurses, to guarantee cohesion and better organizational cultures theory development in nursing sample essay paper. Self-efficacy is mostly related to success, which improves an individual’s overall motivation and confidence.  Current healthcare systems face a lot of pressure to deliver quality services due to the influx of patients and the rise in lifestyle diseases. Through these aspects, nursing practitioners are required to respond to the demands in the most appropriate and precise manner. To effectively accomplish these tasks, nurses ought to be confident.  Researchers elaborate that successful nurses need sufficient self-confidence to perform actions that lead to better patient outcomes.  It is evident that handling patients is a daunting task and therefore, application of the self-efficacy theory is most relevant.
Social Cognitive Theory (parent theory)
According to Neimeyer (2015), the social cognitive theory entails a perspective whereby people learn from others through observations. The theory states that learners acquire newer experiences and practice the behaviors by observing a model. Specifically, a role model is an individual that demonstrates certain behaviors and traits to another person. The main constructs of the social cognitive theory entail observation and behavioral changes as displayed in figure 1.  The theory stipulates that learning is an internal process that may occur immediately, or through a lengthy process and time theory development in nursing sample essay paper. Characteristically, the observer of a certain model could process a specific behavior cognitively and apply it instantly, or at a later stage in life. Besides, social cognitive theorists state that individuals set goals that consequently, direct their behaviors towards achieving them. Through this, they acquire the motivation and eagerness to attain their accomplishments. Additionally, the theory stipulates that behavior can be self-regulated. Social cognitivists state that an individual can standardize and adjust his/her learning of a certain behavior. Classically, after observing and admiring a particular practice from a model, an individual can reinforce the trait through repeated rehearsal.  An individual continuously perfects the moves and compares them with those of the models, achieving perfection in the long run (Zhao,Lei, He, Gu, & Li,  2015).  Additionally, the theory explains that punishment and reinforcement bear indirect effects on an individual.  Through reinforcement, a person develops expectations about the possible consequences on responses that would occur in the future, based on the manner in which current responses are reinforced.  Commonly referred to vicarious experiences, individuals observe and evaluate the consequences that that occur due to other people’s behaviors.

Fig.1. Displaying the Social Cognitive Theory. Adapted from
Description of Proposed Theoretical Model (self-efficacy)
Self-efficacy theory for agentic positive psychology refers to the beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize, plan and execute the course of actions that are required to manage, coordinate and control prospective situations, which lead to the achievement of desired results. Theory development in nursing sample essay paper It entails what an individual believes that would enable him/her accomplish a set of objectives effectively, by a precise application of learned skills under particular environments and situations (Duane& Satre, 2014). Specifically, the theory states that individuals are more likely to engage in activities that they are well-endowed in terms of skills and knowledge than those they are not well conversant with.  The main constructs of the self-efficacy theory are motivation, frustration, and performance. The correlations between these aspects lead to behavioral alignments of a person during execution of duties theory development in nursing sample essay paper.
Key Concepts of the Self-Efficacy Model
The self-efficacy theory contains four main concepts that individuals can employ to judge the levels of effectiveness. The components are significant since they aid in the determination of belief and capacity of a person to accomplish a set of goals.  Individuals encounter an array of tasks that display different levels of complexity. However, Slavich and Irwin (2014) explain that people with high levels of efficacies approach more difficult tasks as a challenge, to expose their weaknesses and help derive amicable solutions.  Contrariwise, Slavich and Irwin (2014) state that individuals with lower intensities of self-efficacy view complex situations as threats and may put in minimal or no effort at all to provide workable resolutions.
Performance outcomes– Performance outcomes entail the past experiences a person exhibits in mind after the accomplishment of duties. According to the self-efficacy theory model, they are very vital, since they determine one’s level of practicality. Performance outcomes may be positive or negative.  For instance, if a person executes a task successfully and achieves better results, he/she is likely to develop competence and gain motivation. The levels of confidence are boosted and such individuals are bound to perform even better if assigned such similar tasks. This way, an individual’s self-efficacy increases. On the contrary, if an individual experiences failure during execution of tasks, the results are likely to be detrimental to their overall efficacy (Smith & Liehr, 2013). However, the model provides that persuasion can help alleviate the disappointments, and increase self-motivation.  Through this aspect, one persists to work on similar situations if the results are achievable, leading to improved self-efficacy theory development in nursing sample essay paper.
Vicarious Experiences- Since the model relies on the social cognitive theory as its parent source, it provides that the self-efficacy of individuals can be affected by observing other people’s performances.  Characteristically, one can observe another person’s competence when in a similar position of performing duties (Young, Plotnikoff, Collins, Callister, & Morgan, 2014).  The manner in which one maneuvers to complete assigned tasks successfully increases one’s productivity.  For instance, in the nursing field, a nurse can be easily motivated through observing a fellow practitioner handling situations in a healthcare institution with ease. Through such observations, one strengthens his/her ability and perfects the skills to ensure better outcomes.
Verbal Persuasion- Researchers explain that through adequate and meaningful encouragement made precisely through careful choice of words, one’s levels of self-efficacy is bound to improve drastically (Parahoo, 2014).  For instance, healthcare administrators who encourage their nurses on improvement in their departments are likely to receive better results, since such inspiration enables an individual to put more effort to achieve desired goals.
Physiological Feedback- The model elaborates that emotional arousal and sensations often bear considerable effects on one’s self-efficacy. For instance, a person who experiences ease in making speeches in front of big crowds is likely to display high levels of self-efficacy.

Fig. 2. Displaying the Self-Efficacy Theory. Adapted from
Relationship of Concepts
The theoretical model of self-efficacy is very important in ensuring best outcomes in many institutions if applied appropriately. In the nursing field, all the stakeholders especially the practitioners can employ the models and integrate its concepts to guarantee better outcomes. It is common to encounter nurses endowed with different abilities in one health institution. Besides, some may be novices while others boast of vast experiences. The correlation between the aspects of the self-efficacy model guarantees better provision of services through relevant integration. For instance, performance outcomes lead to the formation of experience amongst employees (Wyer Jr, 2014). After accomplishment of duties, one achieves a sense of satisfaction if excellent results are yielded.  In the nursing field, a medical practitioner is bound to handle patients effectively if his/her initial strategies proved operative theory development in nursing sample essay paper.  This way, the nurse is more likely to perform using the same methods and even put more effort to yield results in a better way.  Through, this, newer and novice nurses are likely to observe in the manner in which a successful medical practitioner executes his/her duties. The new recruits can imitate and apply learned skills to accomplish their tasks, therefore, improving levels of self- efficacy.
Questions and Hypotheses
Q1. Can physiological feedbacks affect the levels of self- efficacy on an individual?
Physiological feedbacks on an individual are able to affect their levels of self-efficacy in a variety of ways.
Q2. What is the importance of self-efficacy in the nursing profession?
High self-efficacy is related to better patient outcomes in the medical field.
Q3. What case slow self-efficacy among people?
Low self-efficacy is associated with poor skills in workplaces.
Theory development in nursing is a significant facet that many health care institutions choose to employ. Evidently, healthcare organizations that employ relevant theories and integrate their aspects precisely achieve better outcomes. It is apparent since these theories provide frameworks through which one can predict the final outcomes, and implement strategies that would correct bad situations in case they occur. Specifically, the self-efficacy theory, a model of the social cognitive theory explains that through the application of learned skill, a person’s belief on performing certain tasks guarantees accomplishment and achieving desired results. Through the integration of its aspects, one can develop and improve self- effectiveness, leading to better outcomes at workplaces theory development in nursing sample essay paper.
Duane, B. T., & Satre, M. E. (2014). Utilizing constructivism learning theory in collaborative testing as a creative strategy to promote essential nursing skills. Nurse Education Today, 34(1), 31-34
Neimeyer, R. A. (Ed.). (2015). Death anxiety handbook: Research, instrumentation, and application. Taylor & Francis.
Slavich, G. M., & Irwin, M. R. (2014). From stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder: a social signal transduction theory of depression. Psychological bulletin, 140(3), 774
Smith, M. J., & Liehr, P. R. (Eds.). (2013). Middle range theory for nursing. Springer Publishing Company theory development in nursing sample essay paper.
Parahoo, K. (2014). Nursing research: principles, process and issues. Palgrave Macmillan.
Young, M. D., Plotnikoff, R. C., Collins, C. E., Callister, R., & Morgan, P. J. (2014). Social cognitive theory and physical activity: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obesity Reviews, 15(12), 983-995.
Wyer Jr, R. S. (Ed.). (2014). Knowledge and memory: The real story: Advances in social cognition (Vol. 8). Psychology Press.
Zhao, F. F., Lei, X. L., He, W., Gu, Y. H., & Li, D. W. (2015). The study of perceived stress, coping strategy and self‐efficacy of Chinese undergraduate nursing students in clinical practice. International journal of nursing practice, 21(4), 401-409 theory development in nursing sample essay paper.


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