NURS 6501 COPD Case Study Analysis

NURS 6501 COPD Case Study Analysis
NURS 6501 COPD Case Study Analysis
COPD is a disease typified by reversible obstruction of airflow and defective inflammatory response within the lungs (Hatipoğlu, 2018). The defective inflammatory response within the lungs is an immune response to long-term exposure to toxins such as cigarette smoke. The amplified immunity response can result to chronic bronchitis characterized by mucous hypersecretion, emphysema characterized by tissue destruction; and defective mechanisms that cause inflammation of the small airway as well as fibrosis (bronchiolitis).​ The pathological changes cause elevated airflow resistance within the small airways, air trapping, amplified compliance of the lungs, in addition to progressive airflow obstruction (Newsome et al., 2018) NURS 6501 COPD Case Study Analysis. These pathogenic mechanisms lead to the pathological changes present in COPD. The pathological changes then lead to the physiological abnormalities present in COPD such as abnormalities in gas exchange; airflow obstruction; mucous hypersecretion; pulmonary hypertension; systemic effects; hyperinflation; and ciliary dysfunction (Newsome et al., 2018). These physiological abnormalities manifest as symptoms present in the patient such as breath shortness, a flattened diaphragm, thicker sputum, increased AP diameter among other symptoms and physical abnormalities (Hatipoğlu, 2018).
The prevalence and incidence of COPD among black in America have remained lower when compared to white populations. COPD might be influenced by ethnic and racial factors. Likely differences in COPD between different ethnic and racial groups include biological and genetic variations; disparities when it comes to diagnosis and treatment; as well as increased exposure to tobacco smoke.  Gilkes et al (2016) established that the prevalence of COPD among the blacks and Asians is lower in comparison to the whites. In this study, Asians and blacks with COPD also had less severe symptoms where the white patients had severe breathlessness when compared to the Asians and black COPD patients (Gilkes et al., 2016). There is also a significant variation in the prevalence of COPD among Latinos when compared to Hispanics NURS 6501 COPD Case Study Analysis.
The variation of COPD among different races and ethnicities may be attributable to the smoking variations among different racial and ethnic groups (Diaz et al., 2018). Smoking prevalence is highest among Americans of Alaskan and Indian origin, while the lowest among Asians. Even though blacks have a higher likelihood of becoming smokers, they smoke a fewer number of cigarettes daily, and this can explain why the prevalence of COPD is lower among blacks when compared to the whites within the US. Asians tend to have a low smoking rate and this explains the low prevalence of COPD among the Asians (Gilkes et al., 2017) NURS 6501 COPD Case Study Analysis.
Diaz, A. A., Celli, B., & Celedón, J. C. (2018). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Hispanics. A 9-Year Update. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 197(1), 15-21.
Gilkes, A., Ashworth, M., Schofield, P., Harries, T. H., Durbaba, S., Weston, C., & White, P. (2016). Does COPD risk vary by ethnicity? A retrospective cross-sectional study. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11, 739–746.
Gilkes, A., Hull, S., Durbaba, S., Mathur R & White P. (2017). Ethnic differences in smoking intensity and COPD risk: an observational study in primary care. NPJ Prim Care Resp Med, 27(50).
Hatipoğlu U. (2018). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: More than meets the eye. Annals of thoracic medicine, 13(1), 1–6.
Newsome, B. R., McDonnell, K., Hucks, J., & Dawson Estrada, R. (2018). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Clinical Implications for Patients With Lung Cancer. Clinical journal of oncology nursing, 22(2), 184–192.
Module 2 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the fact that these two systems work so closely together. A variety of factors and circumstances that impact the emergence and severity of issues in one system can have a role in the performance of the other NURS 6501 COPD Case Study Analysis.
Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their capacity to work together. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact.
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An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:
By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following

The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.

Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.

How these processes interact to affect the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 4

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4
Reminder: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at All papers submitted must use this formatting NURS 6501 COPD Case Study Analysis.
Hello Class,
Welcome to Module two which comprises of week 3 and 4. The focus is on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of cellular processes and the alterations that lead to various cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and disorders. You will evaluate the genetic environment and its impact on these diseases. You will also evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on physiological functioning. Please note that the knowledge check assessment is due by end of week three and the case study analysis assignment is due by end of week four. Here is the case study for this module:
45-year-old woman presents with chief complaint of 3-day duration of shortness of breath, cough with thick green sputum production, and fevers. Patient has history of COPD with chronic cough but states the cough has gotten much worse and is interfering with her sleep. Sputum is thicker and harder for her to expectorate. CXR reveals flattened diaphragm and increased AP diameter. Auscultation demonstrates hyper resonance and coarse rales and rhonchi throughout all lung fields NURS 6501 COPD Case Study Analysis.


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