Gibbs’ model of reflection

Gibbs’ model of reflection
Gibb’s model of reflection focuses on the self-reflecting ability of the actions of an individual with the view to engage in a continual learning process (Wilding, 2008). It is a framework for evaluating various experiences to understand specific areas which need improvement. Gibbs’ reflective cycle is considered one of the most popular cyclical reflection models. In this article, we will discuss what is Gibbs’ reflection model, among other vital insights. Therefore, read on to learn more. Gibbs’ model of reflection:
What is Gibbs’ reflective cycle?
Before we delve deeper into Gibb’s model of reflection, it is essential first to try and understand what is meant by Gibbs’ reflective cycle. In his book “Learning by Doing 1988,” Professor Graham Gibbs shows how important for people to learn through different situations they experience daily, especially when conditions are not favoring them.
From his book, you can learn that the reflective cycle is about self-reflection and a control mechanism that can aid people in figuring out things clearly and systematically. There are various things humans undergo daily that they can draw conclusions about.
Gibb’s reflective model’s plan was to implement various stages to explain the situation, and the cycle sounds sensible. In his reflective model, he believes people should learn from past experiences to figure out life afterward.
Gibb’s model of reflection is the best teaching method that defines situations and helps people reflect and adjust appropriately next time.
Gibbs reflective model
So, now that you understand what is Gibbs’s reflective cycle, it is equally vital for you to understand Gibbs’s reflective models and the various stages. As you have seen, the Gibbs model is cyclical with a framework that focuses on reoccurring events.
It involves six stages whereby each stage aids in reflecting and engaging in a particular learning experience. However, Gibb’s reflective model is easy to use as a guide for learning in a coaching class to examine a situation and draw conclusions.
Gibb’s model of reflection takes the form of six stages: feelings, description, evaluation, analysis, action plan, and conclusion. Below we will discuss each stage in detail.
The first stage of the Gibbs reflective cycle is termed description. In this reflective phase, people can describe their situation or their experiences. However, this phase is not for drawing conclusions but for understanding what has happened.
The focus here is mainly on important information that can offer a factual description of the condition. Therefore, this stage is vital as it helps develop a suitable foundation for understanding the incident.
To understand this stage better, you can apply the following questions to understand more about the situations in the Gibbs model of the reflection description phase.

Who was present?
Why were you there?
When and where did it happen?
What actually happened?
What did you do?
According to you, what did you intend to happen?
What was the result of the situation?
What actions did other people take?

Feelings are the second stage of the Gibbs reflective cycle. Here, people can describe their description feelings and thoughts and the way it has shown an effect on their experiences. Feelings are usually the state of mind of an individual.
The importance of this stage is to understand your thoughts about the different situations and to question yourself on some crucial aspects.
Here are questions that can help you understand the feelings about a certain situation clearly.

What were your feelings like before this situation happened?
What were your feelings at the time of that situation?
What and how did you feel after experiencing this situation?
What and how do you think other people felt when this situation occurred?
What are your thoughts about the situation right now?
How do you think other people will feel about this situation currently?
What do you think other people will feel after this situation?

Evaluation is the third and most crucial phase in the Gibbs model of reflection. Evaluation is marked by people evaluating their experiences either positively or negatively or either good or bad about the circumstance.
Evaluation is the stage where you need to be more objective and know what worked to your advantage and what did not.
You can take the help of the questions below to understand the circumstance in the evaluation phase described in the Gibbs model of reflection.

What went according to the plan in this situation?
What did not go so well in this situation?
What was the negative aspect of this situation?
What was the positive aspect of this situation?
What and how was your contribution to the success of this situation (it can either be positive or negative)
What and how was the participation of other individuals in the success of this situation (either positively or negatively)

Another significant and fourth stage of the Gibbs reflective cycle is analysis. The analysis takes various forms to understand a particular situation. In this context, people can use analysis to feel, think and try to make the relevance of the situation and know what transpired.
In the past, an individual was aimed at details, but analysis allows thinking and drawing relevance from the experience and situation. You can do this at this phase if you want to incorporate academic literature.
This is the step to understanding the things that went well and aided the situation or the reason it did not succeed. Here are important questions you can apply to understand the situations in the Gibbs model of the reflection analysis stage.

Why did everything go as planned in this circumstance?
Why did things not go as planned in this situation?
What meaningful explanations can you make of the situation?
What knowledge and understanding can aid in unearthing this situation?
What skills of other people can be crucial to understand this situation better?

The conclusion is the fifth stage of the Gibbs reflective cycle. It comes after the above stages have been implemented to understand a situation clearly. In conclusion, people can figure out what they have learned and what can possibly be done differently next time.
The conclusions are the section where people can agree through understanding and concluding the actions that can be improved to better the results in the subsequent encounter.
Before drawing a conclusion, essential questions can help understand the situation better. Here are highlights

What did this situation teach me?
What did this circumstance teach other people?
What could have been done to make the situation more positive for everyone?
What activities could I do to improve the experience?
What skills and knowledge do I need to learn to cope with this situation better in the future?

Action plan
The action plan is the sixth and last stage of Gibb’s model of reflection. After learning all these phases, action is needed for the teachings to be effective.
In this stage, people can describe their thoughts on what they have learned and how they can implement the teachings to deal with similar situations in subsequent encounters. Therefore, this is the step to make adjustments and develop a plan to handle things differently in the future.
You can take the questions below to understand better the situations involved in the action plan.

What can I do to ensure that I will respond differently to situations the next time it happens?
How can I learn various skills required to deal with similar situations in the future?
If I had the chance to do the same things again, what could be my action plan, and what can I do differently?

The Gibbs model of reflection has been applied in different situations to boost understanding of a circumstance or an encounter to help people learn. The process is, however, considered an important tool that adapts so well to several situations and aids. Participants reflect appropriately on a situation and apply suitable action in the future.
Are there differences between Gibb’s and John’s reflective models?
We have discussed Gibb’s model of reflection above; however, other scholars contributed to nursing reflective models. One of them is John’s model of reflection. His model offers a pattern of actions that gives the means for reflective practice.
There are various phases involved in this model. For example, in the first stage of the activity, there exists a descriptive recalling experience and understanding of the major issues related to a particular experience.
John’s reflective model, as well as Gibb’s model of reflection, takes different approaches which are significant for a study. However, they have similarities in terms of how they describe certain situations. So, what are the differences between Gibb’s and John’s reflective models?
The differences between Gibb’s and Johns’ reflective models
The two models show differences in how they approach different parts of the reflective activity. Gibb’s model of reflection gives more attention to the individuals and experiences or sentiments of each person involved in the experience (Davies, Finlay & Bullman, 2000).
John’s model of reflection, on the other hand, is more individual-oriented and focuses more on internal as well as external elements and situational factors.
Gibbs’ model of reflection begins with the experience being considered, simply a description of the event as it occurred. The intricacies of the event and an emphasis on the participants, from the individual to the other participants in the event, are addressed.
John’s model of reflection, in contrast, begins with reviewing the event rather than just giving a rundown of its events and participants’ roles. It necessitates a thorough examination of the justifications for the actions taken in light of the goals pursued.
Gibb’s reflective cycle in nursing
You may be asking about the relevance of Gibb’s reflective cycle in nursing. The Gibbs reflective practice models play a significant role in nursing assignments. The nursing doctors and other staff can use the model to discuss the situation of the patient.
After examining the situation or the status of the patient, the nurses can consider other options to check whether they are other treatment alternatives that can be offered to the patient. Alternatively, they can go for an action plan for dealing with a similar situation differently.
Gibb’s reflective practice models
The Gibbs reflective cycle 1988 contends that in order to be successful, contemplation must be systematic and follow a set of predetermined procedures.
This model of reflection is an example of formal reflection; it is based on research and offers a theory of how to implement the process of reflection in the most effective way.
Reflective writing models Gibbs
How can Gibb’s model of reflection be applied in writing? From his teachings, as seen in his cycle, there are various lessons that you can draw to help you in reflective writing models Gibbs. As described in the form of stages, these theories can help predict the future.
You can draw conclusions about what happened by using highlights from past experiences.
Bottom line
Hopefully, you have learned about Gibb’s model of reflection and how it can be used effectively in one’s favor. You can agree that Gibbs’ reflective model is a feature that aids professionals learn and grow from their past encounters. Therefore, if a situation in the future faces you, you can apply these techniques to help cool demonstrative conditions and curb escalating tensions. For more information on reflective models, visit, or if you have concerns or would like to outsource your assignment, we can help you.


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