Then discuss whether you agree or disagree with the ideas presented by Nicholas Kristof and Jaweed Kaleem on th

Then discuss whether you agree or disagree with the ideas presented by Nicholas Kristof and Jaweed Kaleem on the value of the humanities. Explain why or why not. Then, review the article Extraordinary Outsiders: The Makers Who Don’t Know They’re Artists. Do you think the creative process is good for the average person? Explain why or why not.





Keeping Alive The Big Questions
RELIGION
09/07/2013 02:12 pm ET | Updated Dec 06, 2017



EDITION

Keeping Alive The Big Questions
By Jaweed Kaleem
Boy looking into grave of pet.
Twenty years ago, Evgenia Cherkasova and Elena Kornilov were doctoral students in their
mid-20s, living in the same housing complex at Penn State University. As they pursued their
degrees — Cherkasova in philosophy, Kornilov in physics — both started families, and to
take a break from studying they found themselves meeting for wine or tea, or watching their
young children on the playground. As their friendship deepened, their conversations often
veered into the Big Questions on their minds: How could they live a “good life” with
purpose, happiness and success? What did those words mean?
After graduation, Cherkasova and Kornilov went their separate ways, keeping in touch via
letters and weekly phone calls, sharing the details of every aspect of their lives – their kids’
first days of school, their academic research, their relationship hurdles.
On March 4 of this year – Kornilov’s 48th birthday — her doctor called to tell her she had
breast cancer. Even as she hid the diagnosis from other friends and some family members,
Kornilov confided in Cherkasova, and the two went over her treatment options. Some, like
chemotherapy, were physically intrusive, but would greatly increase the chance of remission.
Others, like hormonal drugs, were easier to handle, but came with a higher risk of a tumor
returning.
Suddenly, the conversations and questions that guided their friendship over the years took
on a new meaning. They weren’t just idle speculations; they were real, urgent, full of
consequences, perhaps now even a matter of life and death.
“We started talking about how you deal with these situations, especially when it’s a patient
with a potentially terminal disease,” recalled Cherkasova, now a philosophy professor at
Suffolk University in Boston. “She told me, ‘it’s a question of the quality of life versus length
of life. You have to decide: If you want to prolong your life, then what do you do it for? What
am I doing in life at this point? What’s happiness?”
***
This fall, as the latest crop of freshmen arrives on university campuses across the country,
many students will find themselves debating similar questions, and not only in early-morning
101 courses. In dining halls and dorm rooms, as they come together with people of vastly
different backgrounds and perspectives, they’ll continue the typical college traditions of late
nights, long conversations and self-discovery. And when they graduate, they will face a
challenge much steeper than any college exam or doctoral dissertation — carrying that spirit
of inquiry with them into the real world.
Statistical and anecdotal evidence suggests this is easier said than done. According to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, which takes an annual measure of how Americans use their time,
the average person spends about 45 minutes daily “socializing and communicating.”
Watching TV, meanwhile, accounts for nearly three hours of the average American’s day.
And today’s laptop-scattered coffee shops don’t seem to foster environments of
conversation and debate, like the salons of France, often credited with incubating
philosophical discussions that ushered in the Age of Reason, or the cafe culture, a backdrop
for the Existentialist musings of Jean-Paul Sartre and his contemporaries.
Of course, it’s much easier to measure TV-watching than America’s intellectual engagement
and introspection. But for some time, scholars and observers have been documenting, often
with alarm, a shift from a society structured around social gatherings to a culture of
technology-driven individualism — or, depending on your point of view, isolation. Writing
more than a decade ago in Bowling Alone, Harvard public policy professor Robert D. Putnam
documented the erosion of Americans’ participation in community clubs — like bowling
leagues and civic organizations — and the disengagement from society and the self that it
fostered. More recently in Alone Together, Massachusetts Institute of Technology clinical
psychologist Sherry Turkle, who studies the impact of technology on social relations,
examined how hyperconnected-ness has created relationships where we have the “illusion
of companionship” without the “demands of friendship.”
In other words, we are moving toward a way of life that discourages the kinds of
conversations that defined and sustained Cherkasova and Kornilov’s friendship.
“We have
Evgenia Cherkasova, a philosophy
stripped
professor at Suffolk University, regularly
away so
has conversations via phone about the Big
many of the Questions with her friend Elena Kornilov
conditions and will teach a course next year that’s
that make
called, What is the Meaning of Life?
conversations like these flourish. And the condition
that makes it flourish, in many cases, is the
uninterrupted full attention to each other,” said
Turkle, who has spent the three years interviewing dozens of people from various walks of
life about what they talk about with friends and how they do it for an upcoming book called
Reclaiming Conversation. “These conversations are what college students are missing,
they’re what people at work are missing, they’re what we’re all missing.”
In the midst of this shift, the American university system remains an oasis of sorts, a place
where the Big Questions are freely and fiercely debated — in no small part because many
students are not yet dealing with the pressures of work and family. But there’s a shift on
American campuses, too. Just seven percent of graduates major in the humanities, like
philosophy and literature, while majors in largely career-oriented fields have increased as
more Americans pursue higher education. A half-century ago, twice as many students
walked across commencement stages with humanities degrees.
New York Times columnist David Brooks, who has written and spoken extensively about the
decline of the “humanist vocation,” began teaching a course at Yale University last spring
about the history of character building. He said he believes there’s a shortage of people
publicly asking the cosmic questions.
“People are hungry for a certain side of writing about these issues, but we no longer have
that kind of group of writers widely discussing how you measure a life,” said Brooks.
On occasion, an awe-inspiring commencement speech — like David Foster Wallace’s “This is
Water,” which was given at Kenyon College in 2005 and became a book after his death —
makes its way into pop culture. But Brooks believes we need much more. “Back in the
1950s, you had Joshua Heschel and Reinhold Niebuhr; they were writing books devoted
entirely to these issues,” he said.
Heschel, a rabbi who stood on the front lines of the Selma-to-Montgomery marches with
Martin Luther King Jr., also was known for penning provocative theological works, like Man is
Not Alone and God in Search of Man. The works of Niebuhr, a Christian theologian and
professor at Union Theological Seminary, include Moral Man and Immoral Society and The
Nature and Destiny of Man.
“For anyone who goes to church, these are the questions they are essentially grappling with
via their faith,” said Brooks. Indeed, a measurable drop in religious affiliation and attendance
at houses of worship may be a factor in the decline of a culture of inquiry and conversation.
According to the Pew Research Center, 1 in 5 Americans identifies with no religion, including
those who are atheist, agnostic or “spiritual but not religious.”
But the Big Questions aren’t just for the faithful, and there are glimmers of hope for those
who long for the days when it was easy to find souls loudly searching for what the Greeks
described as eudaimonia, or the “human flourishing,” considered central to a person and
society’s development.
On Meetup.com, a website where people organize get-togethers around mutual interests in
homes, restaurants or cafes, hundreds of groups focused on philosophy, spirituality and
religion have launched in recent years. TED, the conference series with the slogan “ideas
worth spreading,” has an independent affiliate that hosts weekly salons in a Manhattan
apartment where attendees watch taped talks then discuss them (in August, the theme of
each meeting was “courage”). And from suburban Columbus, Ohio, to Seattle, individuals
and nonprofits have launched grassroots efforts aimed at getting Americans to talk about
death and what they desire out of life; events include Death Cafes — monthly coffee shopcentered discussions on dying that can now be found in nearly every major American city —
and Death Over Dinner, a coordinated series of meals that took place in hundreds of homes
last month.
The Adult Philosophy Club of East Greenwich, R.I., was launched just over three years ago
by a drug addiction counselor who recognized what he called “existential crises” among his
clients. Today, the group is open to the whole town.
For 90 minutes each Tuesday in a community room at a police station, Bob Houghtaling, a
59-year-old counselor who studied philosophy as an undergraduate at Rhode Island
College, leads a roundtable of a dozen citizens
Bob Houghtaling, director of the drug
ranging
counseling program at the F.A.C.E.S.
from
community center in East Greenwich, R.I.,
teenagers
founded the Adult Philosophy Club two
to retirees.
years ago. Today, its membership includes Sometimes,
a dozen people who meet weekly in a
they’re
community room at the local police station discussing a
to discuss the Big Questions and how
book, like
philosophy applies to them.
Eichmann in
Jerusalem, the examination of the trial of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in which political
philosopher Hannah Arendt coined the term “the banality of evil.” Or they’re going to
museums and films, like the Tomaquag Indian Memorial Museum in Rhode Island and a
showing of the feature film “Lincoln.”
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“What constitutes morality? Are we moral? Is what’s right something natural or is it
something that we’re taught?” Houghtaling said, recounting some of the club’s recurring
themes. “People come in with strong convictions and religious views. It can get heated.”
Oftentimes, the conversation spins off of the news. With international controversy over
revelations about the National Security Agency’s extensive spying programs and amid
increased tensions over the Obama administration’s threat to launch strikes against Syria,
the discussion frequently turns to the role of the state. “What obligation does the state have?
In a critical situation like a war, can the government suspend natural rights?” said
Houghtaling. “Where’s the line?”
As Houghtaling sees it, these are questions that can all too easily be swallowed by the
activities and stresses of everyday life.
“We go through the perfunctory things so much, putting on our suits and ties, and putting on
our titles, that we don’t get to talk about humanity and life. It’s cathartic when you get to do
it,” he said. “It’s tough to sustain yourself unless there are ‘whys’ and purposes.”
Yet, there are plenty of reasons for putting off these questions. With high unemployment and
economists predicting years of recovery from the recession ahead, jobs and money have a
way of taking precedence over any talk of higher purpose. When Gallup researchers asked
an international group of respondents a few years ago to describe their “best possible
future,” the responses leaned heavily toward “wealth” and “good health.” It was harder, on
the other hand, for people to describe what they considered good relationships and a sense
of community, and how important they were.
***
Given the considerable evidence and widespread perception that we are drifting away from
the Big Questions, more universities have committed to sparking conversations. Many
classrooms and campus greens are being turned into experimental zones where students
and faculty can explore what Greek philosophers called the quest for ataraxia, or
“tranquility,” in life.
Recognizing a yearning for “intellectual community,” the National Endowment for the
Humanities has given $2.2 million in grants since 2009 to fund college and university
courses that tackle the “enduring questions.” Cherkasova will teach one next year at Suffolk
University in Boston called, What is the Meaning of Life (its syllabus includes Ecclesiastes
and Siddhartha, Hermann Hesse’s philosophical novel about a young Brahmin’s journey of
self-discovery during the age of Gautama Buddha). Among dozens of courses that the NEH
has funded are, What Is The Meaning of Happiness, taught at New Mexico State University,
Las Cruces; an upper-level class at the College of St. Benedict in St. Joseph, Minn., titled,
What am I?, and at Ursinus College in Collegeville, Penn., What is Love?
To advocates, these courses are more than mere intellectual exercises and bull sessions.
They pose questions intimately connected to the core of everyday life.
“When you are dealing with college students, mostly what you are doing is trying to plant
seeds so they are familiar with different world vocabularies,” said Brooks, whose own course
was not taught with a grant but is similar in some ways to the NEH programs. “You want it to
be so that when they get older and encounter challenges, they know what to do, and have
books and ways of thinking to help them tackle problems.”
The West Conshohocken, Penn.-based John Templeton Foundation, best known for its
annual Templeton Prize, has spent tens of millions funding largely academic endeavors
looking into the “basic forces, concepts, and realities” of the universe and our place in it.
They range from the esoteric, like a $5 million project to research immortality at the
University of California, Riverside, to projects aimed at a wider audience, like Big Questions
Online, a news site updated weekly with essays by academics and spiritual thinkers.
At Brown University, the New York-based Recanati-Kaplan Foundation began last year to
fund a cross-departmental, interdisciplinary lecture and conference series on Ethical Inquiry.
Its goal: to use Greek philosophies, among others, as a base to inspire students, faculty and
the Providence community to explore the meaning of a “good life.” At the core of its attempt
is another big question: How can the wisdom accumulated over the generations be passed
down instead of lost in the shuffle of everyday
lives?
Tom Kaplan’s Recanati-Kaplan Foundation
is funding the Ethical Inquiry program at
“One of the Brown University, across-departmental,
things that interdisciplinary lecture and conference
interests me series tackling the Big Questions. Kaplan
is whether said his own philosophical journey began
we can save as a teen, when his mother gave him a
young
copy of Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations.
people
literally decades of wasted time in coming to the conclusion that almost everyone does
generation after generation: The things we thought were important in our youth when the
world was open to us, when it was our oyster, when the future would bend itself to our will,
really are not,” said billionaire natural gas and gold investor Thomas Kaplan, who started
Recanati-Kaplan with his wife, Dafna Recanati.
Kaplan’s own interest in philosophy was set off in high school when his mother gave him a
copy of Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations, a major Stoic text.
“There are certain truisms. No man on his deathbed ever said, ‘I wish I spent more time at
the office,’” Kaplan said, describing one of the many lessons he hopes to impart through the
nascent effort. One of the foundation’s launch events in 2012 was a two-day conference on
the “Art of Living.” Hundreds of students, faculty and Providence residents listened to
philosophers, psychiatrists, experimental psychologists and scholars of other disciplines
examine the “good life.”
Meanwhile, at Stanford University, there’s Sophomore College, a three-week intensive
course series where students meet for several hours every day with the same class and live
together on campus. Among its seminars, the Meaning of Life was taught by the university’s
dean of religious life, and included field trips to houses of worship and readings of George
Bernard Shaw’s Major Barbara and Robert Bolt’s A Man for All Seasons. In another push, the
Office of Religious Life hosts “What Matters to Me and Why,” a series of hour-long public
discussions with faculty and administrators about “life questions.” Speakers are encouraged
to discuss their personal struggles and reasons for pursuing their fields.
The
Isabelle Wijangco, 23, said the Meaning of philosophy
Life course at Stanford was one of the
department
most important classes she’s taken. She
chair
credits it with helping her decide on her
goal to attend medical school and focus
on global women’s health issues.
spearheading the program at Brown, Bernard
Reginster, admits the limitations of universities
when it comes to changing conversations at the
dinner table. The challenge, he said, is to take the questions “first, to students and faculty
outside the confines of academic philosophy and second, to a wider public.” How could
exploring philosophy, psychology and literature, for example, amplify the life and work of a
future investment banker, economist or engineer?
Isabelle Wijangco, who graduated from Stanford last year with a degree in human biology, is
among those who took the Meaning of Life seminar in Sophomore College and said the
course is part of what spurred her to want to focus on global women’s health issues when
she attends medical school.
“One of the big questions we grappled with in Meaning of Life was how to live every
moment and be fully present while also being forward-looking and planning for our hopes
and dreams for ourselves and the world,” she said.
Wijangco recalled that a fellow student described a way to strike that balance by repeating a
bit of wisdom he heard from his father: ‘Lay each brick reverently. Lay a purposeful brick, but
be in the moment of laying that brick. The house will form.’”
She has carried that wisdom with her ever since. “It has helped serve as a metric for me in
maintaining intentionality in every action,” she said, “for both present and future.”
This story appears in Issue 66 of our weekly iPad magazine, Huffington, in the iTunes App
store, available Friday, Sept. 13.
Jaweed Kaleem 
Senior Religion Reporter, The Huffington Post
Suggest a correction
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Starving for Wisdom
Kristof, Nicholas . New York Times , Late Edition (East Coast); New York, N.Y. [New York, N.Y]16 Apr
2015: A.27.
ProQuest document link
ABSTRACT
[…]an economics major or computer science major or biology or engineering or physics major who takes serious
courses in the humanities and history also will be a much more valuable scientist, financial professional,
economist, or entrepreneur.” […]wherever our careers lie, much of our happiness depends upon our interactions
with those around us, and there’s some evidence that literature nurtures a richer emotional intelligence. […]it
makes eminent sense to study coding and statistics today, but also history and literature.
FULL TEXT
“We are drowning in information, while starving for wisdom.”
That epigram from E.O. Wilson captures the dilemma of our era. Yet the solution of some folks is to disdain
wisdom.
“Is it a vital interest of the state to have more anthropologists?” Rick Scott, the Florida governor, once asked. A
leader of a prominent Internet company once told me that the firm regards admission to Harvard as a useful
heuristic of talent, but a college education itself as useless.
Parents and students themselves are acting on these principles, retreating from the humanities. Among college
graduates in 1971, there were about two business majors for each English major. Now there are seven times as
many. (I was a political science major; if I were doing it over, I’d be an economics major with a foot in the
humanities.)
I’ve been thinking about this after reading Fareed Zakaria’s smart new book, “In Defense of a Liberal Education.”
Like Zakaria, I think that the liberal arts teach critical thinking (not to mention nifty words like “heuristic”).
So, to answer the skeptics, here are my three reasons the humanities enrich our souls and sometimes even our
pocketbooks as well.
First, liberal arts equip students with communications and interpersonal skills that are valuable and genuinely
rewarded in the labor force, especially when accompanied by technical abilities.
“A broad liberal arts education is a key pathway to success in the 21st-century economy,” says Lawrence Katz, a
labor economist at Harvard. Katz says that the economic return to pure technical skills has flattened, and the
highest return now goes to those who combine soft skills — excellence at communicating and working with people
— with technical skills.
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Page 1 of 4
“So I think a humanities major who also did a lot of computer science, economics, psychology, or other sciences
can be quite valuable and have great career flexibility,” Katz said. “But you need both, in my view, to maximize your
potential. And an economics major or computer science major or biology or engineering or physics major who
takes serious courses in the humanities and history also will be a much more valuable scientist, financial
professional, economist, or entrepreneur.”
My second reason: We need people conversant with the humanities to help reach wise public policy decisions,
even about the sciences. Technology companies must constantly weigh ethical decisions: Where should Facebook
set its privacy defaults, and should it tolerate glimpses of nudity? Should Twitter close accounts that seem
sympathetic to terrorists? How should Google handle sex and violence, or defamatory articles?
In the policy realm, one of the most important decisions we humans will have to make is whether to allow germline
gene modification. This might eliminate certain diseases, ease suffering, make our offspring smarter and more
beautiful. But it would also change our species. It would enable the wealthy to concoct superchildren. It’s
exhilarating and terrifying.
To weigh these issues, regulators should be informed by first-rate science, but also by first-rate humanism. After
all, Homer addressed similar issues three millenniums ago.
In “The Odyssey,” the beautiful nymph Calypso offers immortality to Odysseus if he will stay on her island. After a
fling with her, Odysseus ultimately rejects the offer because he misses his wife, Penelope. He turns down godlike
immortality to embrace suffering and death that are essential to the human condition.
Likewise, when the President’s Council on Bioethics issued its report in 2002, “Human Cloning and Human Dignity,”
it cited scientific journals but also Ernest Hemingway’s “The Old Man and the Sea.” Even science depends upon the
humanities to shape judgments about ethics, limits and values.
Third, wherever our careers lie, much of our happiness depends upon our interactions with those around us, and
there’s some evidence that literature nurtures a richer emotional intelligence.
Science magazine published five studies indicating that research subjects who read literary fiction did better at
assessing the feelings of a person in a photo than those who read nonfiction or popular fiction. Literature seems to
offer lessons in human nature that help us decode the world around us and be better friends.
Literature also builds bridges of understanding. Toni Morrison has helped all America understand AfricanAmerican life. Jhumpa Lahiri illuminated immigrant contradictions. Khaled Hosseini opened windows on
Afghanistan.
In short, it makes eminent sense to study coding and statistics today, but also history and literature.
John Adams had it right when he wrote to his wife, Abigail, in 1780: “I must study Politicks and War that my sons
may have liberty to study Mathematicks and Philosophy. My sons ought to study Mathematicks and Philosophy,
Geography, natural History and Naval Architecture, navigation, Commerce and Agriculture, in order to give their
Children a right to study Painting, Poetry, Musick, Architecture, Statuary, Tapestry and Porcelaine.”
I invite you to sign up for my free, twice-weekly newsletter. When you do, you’ll receive an email about my columns
as they’re published and other occasional commentary. Sign up here.
DETAILS
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Subject:
Education; Economics; Humanities; Computer science; Heuristics
Publication title:
New York Times, Late Edition (East Coast); New York, N.Y.
Pages:
A.27
Publication year:
2015
Publication date:
Apr 16, 2015
column:
Op-Ed Columnist
Section:
A
Publisher:
New York Times Company
Place of publication:
New York, N.Y.
Country of publication:
United States, New York, N.Y.
Publication subject:
General Interest Periodicals–United States
ISSN:
03624331
CODEN:
NYTIAO
Source type:
Newspapers
Language of publication:
English
Document type:
Commentary
ProQuest document ID:
1673303004
Document URL:
http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.proquest.com%2Fdocvi
ew%2F1673303004%3Faccountid%3D3783
Copyright:
Copyright New York Times Company Apr 16, 2015
Last updated:
2017-11-23
Database:
ProQuest Central
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Discussion Rubric: Undergraduate
Your active participation in the discussion topics is essential to your overall success this term. Discussion questions are designed to help you make meaningful
connections between the course content and the larger concepts and goals of the course. These discussions offer you the opportunity to express your own thoughts,
ask questions for clarification, and gain insight from your classmates’ responses and instructor’s guidance.
Requirements for Discussion Topic Assignments
Students are required to post one initial post and to follow up with at least two response posts for each discussion topic assignment.
For your response posts (2), you must do the following:
• Reply to at least two different classmates outside of your own initial post
thread
.
For your initial post (1), you must do the following:
• Compose a post of one to two paragraphs.
• In Module One, complete the initial post by Thursday at 11:59 p.m.
Eastern Time
In Modules Two through Eight, complete the initial post by Thursday at
11:59 p.m. of your local time zone.
• Take into consideration material such as course content and other
discussion topics from the current module and previous modules, when
appropriate (make sure you are using proper citation methods for your
discipline when referencing scholarly or popular resources).
.
In Module One, complete the two response posts by Sunday at 11:59
p.m. Eastern Time
In Modules Two through Eight, complete the two response postsby
Sunday at 11:59 p.m. of your local time zone.
Demonstrate more depth and thought than simply stating that “I agree”
or “You are wrong.” Guidance is provided for you in each discussion
prompt.

Rubric
Critical Elements
Comprehension
Value
40
Exemplary (100%)
Proficient (85%)
Develops an initial post with an Develops an initial post with a
organized, clear point of view or point of view or idea using
idea using rich and significant adequate organization and
detail
detail
Submits initial post on time
Needs Improvement (55%)
Not Evident (0%)
Develops an initial post with a Does not develop an initial post
point of view or idea but with with an organized point of view
some gaps in organization and or idea
detail
Submits initial post one day late Submits initial post two or more
days late
Timeliness
10
Southern New Hampshire University
Engagement
30
Provides relevant and
Provides relevant response
meaningful response posts with posts with some explanation
clarifying explanation and detail and detail
Provides somewhat relevant
response posts with some
explanation and detail
Provides response posts that
are generic with little
explanation or detail
Writing
20
(Mechanics)
Writes posts that are easily
understood, clear, and concise
using proper citation methods
where applicable with no errors
in citations
Writes posts that are easily
understood using proper
citation methods where
applicable with few errors in
citations
Writes posts that are
understandable using proper
citation methods where
applicable with a number of
errors in citations
Writes posts that others arenot
able to understand and does
not use proper citation
methods where applicable
Total
100%
< >
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Southern New Hampshire University
Discussion Rubric: Undergraduate
Your active participation in the discussion topics is essential to your overall success this term. Discussion questions are designed to help you make meaningful
connections between the course content and the larger concepts and goals of the course. These discussions offer you the opportunity to express your own thoughts,
ask questions for clarification, and gain insight from your classmates’ responses and instructor’s guidance.
Requirements for Discussion Topic Assignments
Students are required to post one initial post and to follow up with at least two response posts for each discussion topic assignment.
.
.
For your initial post (1), you must do the following:
Compose a post of one to two paragraphs.
In Module One, complete the initial post by Thursday at 11:59 p.m.
Eastern Time.
In Modules Two through Eight, complete the initial post by Thursday at
11:59 p.m. of your local time zone.
Take into consideration material such as course content and other
discussion topics from the current module and previous modules, when
appropriate (make sure you are using proper citation methods for your
discipline when referencing scholarly or popular resources).
For your response posts (2), you must do the following:
Reply to at least two different classmates outside of your own initial post
thread.
In Module One, complete the two response posts by Sunday at 11:59
p.m. Eastern Time.
In Modules Two through Eight, complete the two response posts by
Sunday at 11:59 p.m. of your local time zone.
Demonstrate more depth and thought than simply stating that “I agree”
or “You are wrong.” Guidance is provided for you in each discussion
prompt.
.
Rubric
Critical Elements
Comprehension
Value
40
Exemplary (100%)
Develops an initial post with an
organized, clear point of view or
idea using rich and significant
detail
Proficient (85%)
Develops an initial post with a
point of view or idea using
adequate organization and
detail
Needs Improvement (55%)
Develops an initial post with a
point of view or idea but with
some gaps in organization and
detail
Not Evident (0%)
Does not develop an initial post
with an organized point of view
or idea

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