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**The paper mus be 7 to 8 pages or more total. Please see the two required attachments to be successful in completing this paper.


1
WORLDVIEW COMPARISON CHART
Based on data from:
http://www.marketfaith.org/resources/WorldviewComparisonChart.pdf
Direct quotes from that web document are indicated by the Calibri font.
Also based on data from:
http://www.teachingaboutreligion.org/WorldviewDiversity/compare.htm
Cells in italics are based on that website.
QUESTION
What is the
nature of
ultimate reality?
(Ultimate
Reality)
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
The only thing
that exists is
material matter
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
The only
thing that
exists is
material
matter
Also based on data from:
http://mrdspage.com/worldview.aspx
which is indicated by using the Arial font.
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
The universe
contains both
material and
immaterial
parts. Spirits
There is one
Impersonal,
exist in a
personal,
separate place Pantheistic,
infinite,
from physical Monistic (The transcenuniverse is
beings, but
dent God
the
same as
they interact
who is
God or the
with each
Creator and
gods).
other in a
Sustainer.
symbiotic
relationship.
There is
one
There is one
infinite
and trans- personal, infinite,
cendent transcendent God
God who
who is Creator
is Creator
and Sustainer.
and
Sustainer.
DEISM
There is one
infinite God who
was Creator.
2
QUESTION
ORIGIN
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
Accidental. Life
occurred as a
random event.
The force
driving the
differential forms
of life is nature
(the
environment).
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
Accidental.
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
No
Both the
beginning
physical and
point; life
spiritual worlds
has always
exist as the
existed.
creation of an
The physical
Intelligent
world is an
Designer
illusion,
obscuring
[design
the “spiritual Basically Basically
demands a
the
force” that is
the same
Designer].
in every
same as
Humans and all
as Christiphysically
Christilife forms
anity.
existing
anity.
were uniquely
thing. That
universal
and individually
force is
formed with the
responsible
capacity of each
for all life,
species to
which is
reproduce itself
constantly
“after its kind”
being
recycled.
only.
DEISM
God created the
universe and
natural physical
laws, but has not
done anything
since then.
3
QUESTION
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
What is the
Matter is eternal
nature of
and what exists is
material reality? the result of the
(Material
eternal operation
Reality)
of natural laws.
What is a human
being?
(Humanity)
Complex
biological
machines.
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
Reality is
what you
believe.
Complex
biological
machines.
Matter is
permeated
by spirits
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
Impersonal,
illusory,
Seeking
oneness.
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
DEISM
The
The
material
material
world
world was
was
created
created
intenintentionally by
tionally
God.
by God.
The material
world was
created
intentionally by
God.
The material
world was
created
intentionally by
God.
Material
Personality
creatures
and
A special
who inhabit individu- creation of
the physical ality are
God—
world [who] illusions. A souls who
are body
have a
life force
and spirit.
spiritual
seeking
core.
oneness.
A
special
creation
of God
A special creation
whose
of God created in
essence
God’s image to A special creation
is Spirit.
have fellowship
of God whose
People
with God, but
essence is Spirit.
are
fallen into ruinous
weak,
sin.
but not
inherently
sinful.
4
QUESTION
IDENTITY
What happens to a
person at death?
(Death)
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
Evolved animal.
Humanity
represents the
most advanced
and specialized
animal that has Humanity is
developed in the
an animal
evolutionary
species, no
process.
more
Abstract
important
reasoning skills
than any
have poised hum
other species.
ans to be the
animal most likely
to survive
because of
developed high
adaptability skills.
The individual
The individual life
life form ceases
form ceases to exist.
to exist.
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
Life is
god. All
living
things are
part of
that
universal
force and,
thus, part
of the
force
known to
some as
god or the
One.
The
individual’s
spirit enters
the spiritual
dimension.
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
DEISM
Imago Dei” (“in
God’s
image”) Human
beings alone
were created
after the likeness
of the Creator,
supirior [sic] to all
other living
things, having
eternal existence,
and placed in
“dominion” over
all creation.
Humans alone
are allowed to
enter into a
relationship with
the Creator.
The grave is
the end of
The life force
The translife. OR:
recycles
ferring of The transferring of
The
(reincarnates)
life to Heaven or to
life to
transferring
Paradise
into another
Hell.
of life to
or to Hell.
form.
heaven or
hell.
The transferring of
life to Heaven.
5
QUESTION
DESTINY
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
Annihilation. When
death occurs, the
essential elements
that came to be
combined in the
individual, are
reduced to their
most basic form
and recycled by
nature into other
(living or non-living)
forms.
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
Annihilation.
It isn’t
Why is it
A chance
possible to
possible to know
happening
really know
anything.
anything at all? because of a high
(Knowledge) level of evolution. There is no
truth.
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
Reincarnation.
The life force
of all things is
recycled.
Through
multiple
attempts or
trials, all life is
ultimately
progressing
Various views toward perfect
harmony with
the universal
force.
Attempts or
cycles are
unlimited
(reincarnation) until that
unity is
reached.
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
Various views
God
created
Knowledge humans
with the
Assumed to
is an
ability to
exist and
illusion.
know.
known by
Nothing
Truth is
observation. exists as it revealed in
appears. the Tanakh
and
Creation.
Eternity. Being made
in the imago dei also
implies eternal
existence. Humans
only are eternal in
nature which
supercedes the
Final
physical body. The
judgment
Creator has
determined and
established eternal
reward for those who
obey Him and
eternal punishment
for those who do not.
DEISM
Various views
God
created
humans
God created
with the humans with the
God created
ability
ability to know.
humans with the
to know. Truth is revealed
ability to know.
Truth is in the Bible and in
revealed
Creation.
in the
Quran.
6
QUESTION
How do we
know what is
right and
wrong?
(Morality)
What is wrong
with the human
race? (Sin)
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
Decided by
individuals or
social groups.
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
There is no
morality.
Just don’t
hurt anyone
else.
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
The cosmos
is perfect at
every
God
moment.
revealed
Good and
Based on
right and
evil are an
wrong in
experience.
illusion.
the
Search
Tanakh.
your heart
for what’s
right.
We are
We are
We don’t
isolated from
We are
trapped in a
We haven’t
obey the
each other in
beset by
cycle of
evolved enough.
Law of
our own
evil spirits. reincarnatio
Moses.
little realities.
n.
God
revealed
right
and
wrong
God revealed
in the
right and wrong
Quran in the Bible and in
and the
the person of
Hadith.
Christ.
Society
must
follow
Shari’a.
People
are
weak
and
need an
Islamic
government to
force
them to
behave.
DEISM
Look wherever
you want to.
We have a natural
The evils of
inclination to sin
society need to be
(wanting to please
overcome through
ourselves instead
social change.
of God).
7
QUESTION
MORALITY
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
Survival of the
fittest or most
capable.
Morality is
utilitarian with
no set
standards
Imposed on
except those
people by
imposed by
their
nature.
Behaviors and cultures; no
thinking are
objective
primarily
truths to
centered upon
them.
what will assist
the individual in
enjoyment of
life, avoidance
of pain or
displeasure, and
survivability.
Various
views
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
Seek unity
with all life
(force).The
individual seeks to
come into
harmony
with the
Found in
force and the Torah
to throw off
and it is
the
applied by
limitations
in the
and
Talmud.
illusions of
physical
existence and, in the
process,
to gain
enlightenment.
DEISM
The
Creator establishes the rules.
The
Creator determined the
Found
standards for
in the
Generally accepts
“right and
Quran
the morals
wrong,” “moral
and immoral.”
and in
inherited from
Standards for
Shari’a
Christianity
Law. behavior and life
are external in
origin and are
discovered as
one comes into
relationship with
the Creator.
8
QUESTION
What is the
meaning of
human history
(History)
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
A linear
There is no
A linear
meaning to progression
progression of history; it’s a of events
series of
events without
without
random
special meaning.
special
events.
meaning.
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
A linear
succession
of events
that began
Time is an
with God’s
illusion.
creation
Time
and is
moves in
moving
cycles.
toward
fulfilling
his
purposes.
DEISM
A linear
succesA linear
sion of
succession of
events
events that began
that
A linear
with God’s
began
succession of
with
creation and is
God’s
moving toward events that began
creation
with God’s
fulfilling his
and is purposes through
creation.
moving
the death,
toward resurrection, and
fulfilling
return of Christ.
his
purposes.
9
QUESTION
How are we
saved?
(Salvation)
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
Through
There is no
education,
salvation or
science, and
hope.
further evolution.
By
appeasing
the spirits
through
rituals and
sacrifices.
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
By
becoming
one with
the
universe.
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
By
obeying
the Law of
Moses and
affiliating
with God’s
covenant
people,
Israel.
DEISM
On Judgment
Day,
one’s
good
deeds
will be
weighed
against
By grace alone
one’s
through faith
Everyone will be
evil
alone in Christ
saved because
deeds. 5
alone. True
they are basically
required
Christians obey
good. Except
deeds:
Christ out of love, maybe people like
confesnot as a means to
Hitler.
sing
salvation.
Allah
and
Mohammed;
prayer;
fasting;
pilgrimage; and
alms.
10
QUESTION
What is the
nature of God?
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
God is the
imagination of
ignorant,
superstitious
people.
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
There is
Buddhists
believe in
one God,
many gods,
whose
but not in a name ‫יהוה‬
Creator.
must not
Hindus
be probelieve in
nounced,
one Divine
You are the
There are
who is the
Power,
god of your many spirits manifested
Creator
own reality. and ghosts.
through
and
different
Lawgiver
avatars.
and made
Taoists
believe in the a special
yin and yang covenant
forces of
with
nature.
Israel.
DEISM
There is
one
God,
Allah,
who has
There is one God,
no partwho eternally
ners.
consists of three God created the
He
persons: Father, universe and then
spoke
Son, and Holy
left us on our
through
Spirit, who
own.
the prointervenes in
phets,
human history.
the last
of
whom is
Mohammed.
11
QUESTION
MEANING
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
To survive and
thrive. Enjoyment
of life is the goal
with the
individual
deciding what
gives meaning to
life as an
individual
experience.
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
There is no
meaning to
life.
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
Seek unity
with all life
(force). The
individual seeks to
come into
harmony with
the force and
to throw off
the
limitations
and illusions
of the
physical
existence and, in the
process,
to gain
enlightenment.
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
Relationship with
the Creator. The
meaning of life is
to seek
relationship with
the Creator
according to the
plan He has
established, as a
part of what, and
the reason for
why, He created.
DEISM
12
QUESTION
What is the
chief end of
man?
NATURALISM/
RATIONALISM
POSTMODERNISM ANIMISM/
(deconstruc- SHAMANISM
tionism)
FAR EASTERN
THOUGHT
(Hinduism,
Buddhism,
Taoism, etc.)
THEISM
THEISM
THEISM
JUDAISM
ISLAM
CHRISTIANITY
The
chief
end of
man is
to
glorify
God and
enjoy
him
forever.
See
http://www.creeds.
net/reformed/West
minster/shorter_ca
techism.html
DEISM
A catechism is a
list of questions
and answers used
to teach a
church’s children
or new members
what the church
believes.
THE WORLDVIEW PAPER: CHOOSING YOUR PHILOSOPY OF ETHICS
You must follow these instructions very carefully to get a good grade on this essay!
Make sure that your paper contains each and every section outlined below and that every
question is fully answered. This is primarily an essay, not a research paper. Nevertheless, you
will need to use the class handout Worldview Comparison Chart as a reference. Other references
will also need to be used. (See Part IV).
I.
DESCRIBE YOUR WORLDVIEW. Describe your worldview on the following
questions, using the Worldview Comparison Chart: What is the nature of ultimate reality?
What is the origin of the universe and of life? What is the nature of material reality?
What is the nature of humanity? What is the identity of humanity? Why is it possible to
know anything at all? How do we know what is right and wrong? What is morality?
What is the meaning of human history? What is wrong with the human race? How are
we saved? What is the nature of God? What is the meaning of life?
Your worldview does not have to be strictly from one category.
II.
DESCRIBE THE CHRISTIAN WORLDVIEW. Describe the Christian Worldview on
the following questions, using the Worldview Comparison Chart: What is the nature of
ultimate reality? What is the origin of the universe and of life? What is the nature of
material reality? What is the nature of humanity? What is the identity of humanity? Why
is it possible to know anything at all? How do we know what is right and wrong? What
is morality? What is the meaning of human history? What is wrong with the human race?
How are we saved? What is the nature of God? What is the meaning of life?
You may quote the chart or use your own words, but use standard referencing techniques
if you quote. However, I am expecting more than simply cut and paste.
III.
DEFINE THE PHILOSOPHIES DISCUSSED IN CLASS. Each philosophy should
contain a definition of two to five sentences. The philosophies that you must define are:
A TELEOLOGY Teleological ethical systems include:
1 EGOISM
2 UTILITARIANISM
B DEONTOLOGY Deontological ethical systems include:
1 CLASSICAL VIRTUES
2 RIGHTS
3 JUSTICE AS FAIRNESS
C ETHICAL RELATIVISM
D POSTMODERNISM
This will require nine definitions of seven philosophies (define teleology separately,
although it includes egoism and utilitarianism, and define deontology separately,
although it includes classical virtues, rights, and justice as fairness.
1
IV.
CHOOSE YOUR PHILOSOPHY. Based on your worldview as described in Part I,
choose one of the seven philosophies listed in Part II. Select the one that is most
compatible with your values and beliefs. This philosophy should guide you in your
career as an accountant and enable you to make moral and ethical choices that are
compatible and consistent with your worldview. Explain carefully why you choose this
philosophy. You should cite relevant source materials:
If your worldview is naturalism, cite naturalistic or rationalistic philosophers.
If your worldview is postmodern, cite postmodern or deconstructionist philosophers.
If your worldview is animism, cite shamans or new age philosophers.
If your worldview is eastern, cite eastern philosophers or gurus.
If your worldview is Jewish, cite a Jewish philosopher, the Tanakh, or the Talmud.
If your worldview is Muslim, cite the Quran, hadith, or Islamic philosophers.
If your worldview is theistic, cite theistic philosophers.
If your worldview is deistic, cite deistic philosophers.
If your worldview is Christian, cite the Bible and Christian philosophers.
If your worldview came from multiple categories, you may need to cite multiple
sources.
If you don’t know where to find sources to support your philosophy, come to me for help.
It may indicate that you haven’t clearly yet thought through your worldview.
V.
LIST OF SOURCES. Any source you used to write the paper, whether or not you quoted
from it, should be listed here. Follow the directions given in your research paper
assignment.
The grading rubric
A detailed rubric is in the handout entitled Rubric Spreadsheet Integration Paper.
2

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