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Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction refers to “an individual’s positive emotional reactions to a particular job”
and “is an affective reaction to a job that results from the person’s comparison of actual
outcomes with those that are desired, anticipated or deserved” (Oshagbemi, 1999, p.
388). Six factors of affecting job satisfaction will be discussed separately below.
Employee retention
Employee retention has a positive correlation with job satisfaction. Employee retention,
opposed to employee turnover, is an important operation issue for human resources
managers, as an employee leaves, the company is not only losing a person in the
working environment, it also included the lost on the cost invested in training,
development and those compensation put on that employee. Strategies on enhancing
job satisfaction and employee retentions include supportive and believing leaders, one
to one meeting between employee and leaders and fair performance evaluation with
adequate feedbacks (Behera et al., 2011).
Trust
Trust is an emotion that one individual’s willingness to rely on others’ action. Trust is
that it is “a psychological state [consisting of] the intention to accept vulnerability based
upon positive expectations of the intentions or behavior of another” (Rousseau, Sitkin,
Burt, and Camerer 1998, p. 395). Previous research already has proven a link between
trust and job satisfaction (Driscoll, 1978). Recent evidence indicated trust relationship is
cultivating organizational effectiveness, the interpersonal trust between leader and
colleagues also directly or indirectly affecting work performance, organizational
commitment and turnover intentions.
Communication
Communication promotes efficiency and creates a connection between employee and
the organization which enable employees to synchronize with organizational goal.
Effective communication promotes employees’ morale and job satisfaction while
eliminating confusion and uncertainty of job. Pettit et al. (1997) believed that the
communication satisfaction cultivate job satisfaction. A trust relationship between the
leader and the member is often cited as essential for organizational effectiveness.
Motivation
James A. (2006) defines motivation is the psychological and social process to achieving
goal by better performance, it is a desire, and a need to be satisfied. Achievement and
recognition are the intrinsic value of motivation, which can produce job satisfaction.
There are several drivers for motivation, which are trust, recognition, compensation,
promotion and job security. Employees’ motivation is higher when they received trust
and recognition from their leader, monetary compensation and promotion for their
contribution to the company, also, higher job security will stimulate higher level of
motivation.
Engagement level
Employee engagement is defined as “a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind
characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption” (Schaufeli et al., 2002). Employees
with high engagement are willing to put discretionary effort to their work to achieve
company goal. Also, Douglas R. (2011), previous CEO of Campbell Soup Company
believed that high level of employees’ engagement leads to high performance of the
organization. More the employee engaged in their work, more likely they work to
achieve organizational goals more effectively.
Compensation perception
Compensation is the financial and non-financial job fulfillment rewards for employees’
putting time, skills and effort in achieving organizational objectives (Swanepoel et al.,
2014). If the perception of their compensation they received is different with the
expectation, it deviated job dissatisfaction over their work, also increase the potential for
the employee resign from the organization.
Above co-relation with job satisfaction happens to be the outcomes when employees
feel accountability and further discussion will be discussed under findings of the paper.
Relationship between accountability and job satisfaction
Upholding accountability impacts many important attitudes and behaviors, especially
effective in workplace, which can enhance job performance and commitment to the
organization. Meanwhile, the evaluation on relationship between workplace
accountability and job satisfaction is the most discussed in management literatures for
decades. Researches and many theories have continuously showed a positive
correlation between accountability and job satisfaction.
Role Theory
Frink and Klimoski (1998) propose interpersonal relationships is a model of
accountability. For the place with good interpersonal relationships exists, workers feel
higher accountability and job satisfaction also higher. Furthermore, there are likely to be
shared expectations for accountability if good interpersonal relationships exist (Frink
and Klimoski, 1998). In other words, employees tend to be more satisfied under shared
role expectations for the accountability relationship.
Awareness Theory
Thomas et al. (2002) found out that there is a higher level of employees’ felt
accountability to manager and co-workers was linked with a higher level of satisfaction.
They assumed it is related to a kind of “awareness” that is defined as “the actual or
perceived knowledge that others have regarding one’s performance” (Thomas, 2002, p.
318). Workers believe that managers and co-workers are aware of their work have
higher job satisfaction compared to workers who do not believe so.
Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Theory
According to Perceived Organizational Support (POS) theory (Rhoades and
Eisenberger, 2002), POS is defined as employees’ perception and belief to the extent
which the organization values their contributions, cares about their well-being and fulfills
socioemotional needs. A global POS assessment of how employees rank at their
company is measured by the interactions with their superiors as in positive or negative
rate (Rhodes & Eisenberger, 2002). For example, if the leader in the organization
provide more support to the employee, the employee is most likely to attribute more
effort to their work, and eventually boost the performance. Wikhamn and Hall’s study in
2014 indicated that increased accountability will be beneficial under high POS.
Moreover, accountability and job satisfaction is positively associated because “when
employees feel that management cares about their opinions, values, and wellbeing, any
comments and suggestions from management concerning role performance signal that
the employee is visible and that management is aware of his/her efforts” (Wikhamn, W.,
Hall, A. 2014, p.6).
Organizational environment
According to Van Prooijrn et al., (2007) ambiguity-reducing effect, the degree of
proactive voice behavior has showed a positive correlation with the level of
accountability and politic perception. Under uncertain management environment,
employees seem to be more proactive to anticipate and have an influence on threat and
opportunities (Grant et al., 2011) which further evoke the level of accountability. Due to
three-way interaction of accountability, politics perceptions and voice, the degree of
voice would have either positive or negative effect on job satisfaction under high level of
accountability and high political perception (Hochwarter W. et al, 2014). In contrast, if
the management environment is stable, it creates a feeling of job security to the
employee, and eliminates their anxiety and dissatisfaction towards the company.
Psychological entitlement
Psychological entitlement is “a stable tendency toward highly favorable self- perceptions
and a tendency to feel deserving of high levels of praise and reward, regardless of
actual performance levels” (Harvey and Harris, 2010, p. 1640). High level of
accountability reduces the negative effect of psychological entitlement on job attitudes,
reduces reward expectations and disappointment (Harvey and Martinko, 2009). For
entitled participants, higher level job satisfaction is promoted. Breaux et al., (2009) also
states accountability demonstrates positive effects on employee psychological states.
Therefore, a positive relationship between accountability and job satisfaction is
expected.
Summary
In order to recap the literatures it is no harm to define the meaning of both accountability
and job satisfaction again. Hall et al. explored and examined accountability in terms of
“felt accountability” which has been defined as “an implicit or explicit expectation that
one’s decisions or actions will be subject to evaluation by some salient audience(s)
(including oneself), with the belief in the potential for either rewards or sanctions based
on these evaluations” (Hall et al. , 2006, p. 88). Job satisfaction has been defined as
“the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or
facilitating the achievement of one’s job values” (Locke, 1969, p. 316).
The literature review highlighted the concept of accountability, the different styles of
accountability which are imperfect but have their each characteristics. The importance
for accountability is also included for reference. Factors affect job satisfaction is also
discussed reviewed. Most importantly, the relationship between accountability and
satisfaction is introduced which is the main topic in this paper. From the literature
review, the most effective workplace accountability model and the best methods to
reach job satisfaction are most important.
From the literature Review above, there is nothing related to Hong Kong workplace
studies. In fact, it is hard to find relevant literatures as research topics can rarely be
found related to accountability, no mention regarding workplace accountability. The
concern of job satisfaction has been raised and emphasized in Hong Kong
organizational management, but not the case for workplace accountability. Therefore,
this paper is a good opportunity to introduce workplace accountability through an
existed Hong Kong local office and evaluate the relationship between accountability and
job satisfaction.

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