In an 800-1200-word, double-spaced essay, analyze the role of ideology in shaping both equality and inequality w

In an 800-1200-word, double-spaced essay, analyze the role of ideology in shaping both equality and inequality within the global markets This essay must contain an introduction with a thesis statement (your argument or position) followed by detailed historical evidence that substantiates your position. Vague generalizations and unsupported opinions should be avoided. Use the lectures and include appropriate primary and secondary sources provided in the course to support and strengthen your argument.Avoid long and excessive quoting.It’s better to paraphrase in your own words.No outside sources. I would try to create a thesis that
would allow me to analyze the causes and impact of ideology on equality and
inequality on various groups. Since it really was not a part of the
lectures, I probably wouldn’t attempt to discuss equality and
religion. Still, I would try to work the Scientific Revolution into
my answer. I would also think that a little evaluation in my thesis
and throughout could not hurt.
I have attached all the lectures and primary sources I’m supposed to consult to when writing this essay. PLEASE read over all of them and start writing this essay. THIS IS URGENT! Please write it on time!

The Ottoman Empire
(14th-18th C)
The East Meets the

monotheistic – submission to Allah
Muhammad (570 c.-632) – messenger
prophets – Abraham, Moses, Jesus
beliefs – located in Qur’an
– revealed in 610-32 – word
of God
• five pillars – faith, prayer,
Suleymaniyya Mosque, built 1574-95
alms, fasting, pilgrimage
Rise of empire
• Turks ruling elite – nomadic and tribal
• consolidated power in Central Asia
• Osman (his people) – founder, 12th
• settled in Anatolia – raided Byzantine
• Istanbul (Constantinople) became capital in
From obscurity to empire
• territorial conquest – North
Africa, Southeast Europe,
Middle East
• demanded tribute – paid in
cash and in kind
Height of influence
Sources of strength
• ideology – holy war (jihad)
• attacked Byzantines and Europeans
(Christians); Africans (heathens)
• loyalty to Islam and sultan
• Sultan – protector of Islam and
religious minorities (Jews and
Christians); holy sites/cities
• technological advances – gunpowder,
artillery, tactics, and engineering
• military – Sapahi (free born Muslims);
Janissaries (slave class)
Janissary troops on campaign, mid 16th century
Devshirme system

slavery as social advancement
converted Christian boys – Balkans
military or administration
trained with sultan’s sons
upward mobility – grand vizier
could be a slave – most tax collectors
• returned to Balkans as Muslims – created
constant tensions
Longevity of empire
• tolerance of local customs and religions
– melting pot
• administrative apparatus – Islamic statecraft
• Sultan – protector of the people – anyone could
petition for redress
• Divan – council of ministers
• district governors – Sultan’s sons
• meritocracy – collect taxes and
Suleyman the
Magnificent (1520-1566)
• codified laws; census
Ottoman Economy
Wealth of
Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, (Built 1459-1465)
Sources of wealth
• tribute and taxes – centralized and efficient
• trade and tariffs – overland trade routes
between Europe and Asia – Silk Road
• agricultural items – rice, cotton, sugar-cane
• luxury items – spices and finery
• textile industries – European markets
• technology from Asia and Europe
Indian Ocean trade
• not interested in
naval expansion
• traded with Chinese
and Indians
• later – Portuguese
and Dutch
• Indian Ocean
became part of global
Sources of weakness
• incompetent sultans – too much reliance at
the top
• administrative intrigue and abuse of power
• military nature – needed new conquests
• resource expenditures in foreign wars and
lavish spending created deficit
• shift in trade routes – western hemisphere
Commercial Relations
with the West
Unraveling the
Issued capitulations
• concessions to encourage trade – tolls and
• preferential treatment for European traders
• low tariffs, no taxes, exempt from
Ottoman law
• military defeats – Vienna (1683)
– eroded power
• concessions coerced
Toward dependency
• “factories” – isolated European communities
• Berat system – intermediaries (Christians)
– special privileges
• How provoke unrest?
• industrial revolution – flooded markets with
cheap European goods
• undercut Ottoman economy
Travelers and
“Orientalists” (1800’s)
Enlightened thinkers
• scholars, artists, literary figures – attempt to
categorize and document all aspects of life
• Orientalism – ideological justification
for conquest, imperialism, and
• all same people from Mediterranean
to Pacific and beyond – inferior
• Muhammad – false prophet, imposter, heretic
– not divine
False gods
• Hinduism – polytheistic, idolatry,
caste prejudice, mystic, cultist,
devious, anti-women (sati), antichildren
• Buddhism – escapist, fanciful,
shallow, self-indulgent, violent,
irrational, anti-female
• none considered true religion
“Oriental” government
• despotic, unjust, arbitrary,
brutal, irrational, undemocratic
• opposite of Europe
“Oriental” culture
• chaotic, unorganized
• confused public spaces
– markets, streets, schools
• education – unorganized
and inferior
“Oriental” women
• promiscuous and polygamous
• veiled, secluded in harems,
• objects of desire and derision
“Oriental” as a race
• all Asians (North Africans) one people
• social construction – artificial
• social mirrors – polar opposites – irrational,
sneaky, primitive
“Sick Man of Europe”
• by late 1600’s became
prey for aggressive West
• territory and power
eroded step by step
• indigenous rebellions and
nationalist movements
– created disunity
Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu from The Description of Africa(1526)
El Hasan ben Muhammed el-Wazzan-ez-Zayyati was born in the Moorish city of Granada in
1485, but was expelled along with his parents and thousands of other Muslims by Ferdinand and
Isabella in 1492. Settling in Morocco, he studied in Fez, and as a teenager accompanied his
uncle on diplomatic missions throughout North Africa and and to the Sub-Saharan kingdom of
Ghana. Still a young man, he was captured by Christian pirates and presented as an
exceptionally learned slave to the great Renaissance pope, Leo X. Leo freed him, baptised him
under the name “Johannis Leo de Medici,” and commissioned him to write in Italian the detailed
survey of Africa which provided most of what Europeans knew about the continent for the next
several centuries. At the time he visited the Ghanaian city of Timbuktu, it was somewhat past its
peak, but still a thriving Islamic city famous for its learning. “Timbuktu” was to become a
byword in Europe as the most inaccessible of cities, but at the time Leo visited, it was the center
of a busy trade in African products and in books. Leo is said to have died in 1554 in Tunis,
having reconverted to Islam.
What evidence does he provide that suggests the importance of learning in Timbuktu?
The name of this kingdom is a modern one, after a city which was built by a king named Mansa
Suleyman in the year 610 of the hegira [1232 CE] around twelve miles from a branch of the
Niger River. (1)
The houses of Timbuktu are huts made of clay-covered wattles with thatched roofs. In the center
of the city is a temple built of stone and mortar, built by an architect named Granata, (2) and in
addition there is a large palace, constructed by the same architect, where the king lives. The
shops of the artisans, the merchants, and especially weavers of cotton cloth are very numerous.
Fabrics are also imported from Europe to Timbuktu, borne by Berber merchants. (3)
The women of the city maintain the custom of veiling their faces, except for the slaves who sell
all the foodstuffs. The inhabitants are very rich, especially the strangers who have settled in the
country; so much so that the current king (4) has given two of his daughters in marriage to two
brothers, both businessmen, on account of their wealth. There are many wells containing sweet
water in Timbuktu; and in addition, when the Niger is in flood canals deliver the water to the
city. Grain and animals are abundant, so that the consumption of milk and butter is considerable.
But salt is in very short supply because it is carried here from Tegaza, some 500 miles from
Timbuktu. I happened to be in this city at a time when a load of salt sold for eighty ducats. The
king has a rich treasure of coins and gold ingots. One of these ingots weighs 970 pounds. (5)
The royal court is magnificent and very well organized. When the king goes from one city to
another with the people of his court, he rides a camel and the horses are led by hand by servants.
If fighting becomes necessary, the servants mount the camels and all the soldiers mount on
horseback. When someone wishes to speak to the king, he must kneel before him and bow down;
but this is only required of those who have never before spoken to the king, or of ambassadors.
The king has about 3,000 horsemen and infinity of foot-soldiers armed with bows made of wild
fennel [?] which they use to shoot poisoned arrows. This king makes war only upon neighboring
enemies and upon those who do not want to pay him tribute. When he has gained a victory, he
has all of them–even the children–sold in the market at Timbuktu.
Only small, poor horses are born in this country. The merchants use them for their voyages and
the courtiers to move about the city. But the good horses come from Barbary. They arrive in a
caravan and, ten or twelve days later, they are led to the ruler, who takes as many as he likes and
pays appropriately for them.
The king is a declared enemy of the Jews. He will not allow any to live in the city. If he hears it
said that a Berber merchant frequents them or does business with them, he confiscates his goods.
There are in Timbuktu numerous judges, teachers and priests, all properly appointed by the king.
He greatly honors learning. Many hand-written books imported from Barbary are also sold.
There is more profit made from this commerce than from all other merchandise.
Instead of coined money, pure gold nuggets are used; and for small purchases, cowrie shells
which have been carried from Persia, (6) and of which 400 equal a ducat. Six and two-thirds of
their ducats equal one Roman gold ounce. (7)
The people of Timbuktu are of a peaceful nature. They have a custom of almost continuously
walking about the city in the evening (except for those that sell gold), between 10 PM and 1 AM,
playing musical instruments and dancing. The citizens have at their service many slaves, both
men and women.
The city is very much endangered by fire. At the time when I was there on my second voyage,
(8) half the city burned in the space of five hours. But the wind was violent and the inhabitants of
the other half of the city began to move their belongings for fear that the other half would burn.
There are no gardens or orchards in the area surrounding Timbuktu.
Translated by Paul Brians
(1) Mansa Suleyman reigned 1336-1359. The city was in fact probably founded in the 11th
century by Tuaregs, but became the chief city of the king of Mali in 1324.
(2) Ishak es Sahili el-Gharnati, brought to Tinbuktu by Mansa Suleyman.
(3) By camel caravan across the Sahara Desert from NorthAfrica.
(4) ‘Omar ben Mohammed Naddi, not in fact the king, but representative of the ruler of the
kingdom of Songhai.
(5) Such fabulous nuggets are commonly mentioned by Arab writers about Africa, but their size
is probably grossly exaggerated.
(6) Cowrie shells, widely used for money in West Africa, sometimes came in fact from even
farther away, from the Maladive Islands of Southeast Asia.
(7) A Sudanese gold ducat would weigh .15 oz.
(8) Probably in 1512.
Ancestral Africa and
Persistent myths

Africans isolated, backwards, and heathen
simple, bare existence economy
few or no political institutions
from Senegal to Angola – seen as
one people with one culture
• Why create these myths?
Ancestral Africa
Sudanese States
and Empires
Demographic diversity
• geography and climate
• ethnicity – Fulani, Mande,
Asante, Hausa, San,
Dogon, Yoruba, Ibo,
Wolof, Malinke, Berber
• not one people – cultural
Trade networks
• desert – nomadic – salt was major trade good
• savannah – caravan trade – intermediaries
– collected tolls and tariffs – created empire
• Niger River Valley – agriculture and iron
• forest belt – gold for salt trade
• migratory groups
• global contact – became part
of global markets
Rise of empire (500-1600)
• successive and overlapping empires
– Ghana, Mali, Songhai
• complex political institutions
– power and ambition
• Timbuktu, Gao, and Jenne
– commercial and intellectual centers
• influence of Islam – statecraft and
Berber warrior; typical
of the Almoravid
“Howbeit there is a most stately temple to be seene, the wals
whereof are made of stone and lime ; and a princely palace also
built by a most excellent workeman of Granada. Here are many
shops of artificers, and merchants, and especially of such as
weaue linnen and cotton cloth. And hither do the Barbariemerchants bring cloth of Europe.… The inhabitants, &
especially strangers there residing, are exceeding rich, insomuch, that the king
that now is, married both his daughters vnto two rich merchants.…Here are many
wels, containing most sweete water ; and so often as the riuer Niger ouerfloweth,
they conueigh the water thereof by certaine sluces into the towne. Corne, cattle,
milke, and butter this region yeeldeth in great abundance : but salt is verie scarce
heere; for it is brought hither by land from Tegaza, which is fiue hundred miles
distant. When I my selfe was here, I saw one camels loade of salt sold for 8o.
ducates. The rich king of Tombuto hath many plates and scepters of gold, some
whereof weigh 1300. poundes : and he keepes a magnificent and well furnished
court. When he trauelleth any whither he rideth vpon a camell, which is lead by
some of his noblemen ; and so he doth likewise when hee goeth to warfar, and all
his souldiers ride vpon horses.”
–Leo Africanus’ Description of West African (1526)
Pilgrimage of Mansa Musa (1324)
African Way of Life
A Different
View of the
Political institutions
• simple to complex
• family, clan, and village states
• small kingdoms (most popular) and
• royal, electing, and enthroning families
• advisers and bureaucracy
• local governance more important for everyday
Economic life and status
• pastoral – communal land ownership – created
• hierarchal – revolved around family
• agriculture and domesticating
• artisans and industry
• commerce and trade
Social organization
• patriarchal, unilineal (matrilineal), and
extended (clans)
• nobility
• great masses
• slaves – domestic vs.
Nature of slavery

debt, POW’s, crime
own labor
family status, some
• non-racial
• economic system
not need

bought and sold
own person
no status, no rights
racial – justify
economic system
Traditional African religion

polytheistic – creator god and lesser gods
ancestor reverence (worship)
elaborate funerals – created misunderstandings
spirit/soul – harmony with nature
ghosts, witches, charms – Who is
• Islamic and Christian influence
European Contact
The TransAtlantic Slave
Trade (1450’s1860’s)
Strangers from the sea
• Portuguese arrived in sub-Saharan Africa in 1441
• 1482 – Elmina Castle on Gold Coast – slaves to
Cape Verde plantations
• 1501 – Spanish mines in New
• 1517 – Las Casas – import
Africans – slave labor
• became part of global markets
Destabilizing Africa

raiding and trading
exploit ancient rivalries – gun-slave cycle
two died for every one captured
long distance caravans
– diverse climatic zones caused
diseases on journey
• psychological trauma
• western and northern
European involvement
– mid-1600’s
• early racism – black, inferior
• servile property
• African diaspora – 11.5
million; 5% to British North
“The men Negroes, on being brought aboard the ship, are
immediately fastened together, two and two, by
handcuffs on their wrists, and irons riveted on their legs.
They are then sent down between the decks, and placed
in an apartment partitioned off for that purpose. The
women likewise are placed in a separate room, on the
same deck, but without being ironed. And an adjoining room, on the same deck is
besides appointed for the boys. Thus are they placed in different apartments. But at
the same time, they are frequently stowed so close, as to admit of no other posture
than lying on their sides. Neither will the height between decks, unless directly
under the grating, permit them the indulgence of an erect posture; especially where
there are platforms, which is generally the case.”. . . Upon the Negroes refusing to
take sustenance, I have seen coals of fire, glowing hot, put on a shovel, and placed
so near their lips, as to scorch and burn them.
. . . On board some ships, the common sailors are allowed to have intercourse with
such of the black women whose consent they can procure. And some of them have
been known to take the inconstancy of their paramours so much to heart, as to leap
overboard and drown themselves. The officers are permitted to indulge their
passions among them at pleasure, and sometimes are guilty of such brutal excesses
as disgrace human nature.
Falconbridge, The African Slave Trade (1788)
“Amistad”: Slave ship scene
Middle Passage
• deep shock – alien European, strange ships,
expansive ocean
• trauma of initial boarding
• chronic depression
– gloomy; lowered resistance;
• shipboard rebellions
Slave Trade Routes
African Holocaust
• 13.8 million captured
• 27.6 – two died for every one
• 2.3 died on trip to coast and
waiting to board ships
• 1.7 died on Middle Passage and
waiting in port
• immediate and continued
• Africa – Queen Nzingha of Angola
and King Maremba of the Congo
• Latin America and Caribbean –
maroon communities – former slaves
waged guerilla warfare against slave hunters
• U.S. – free African Americans spearheaded
abolition movement
• Africans connected globally, progressive, and
• complex economic and political institutions
• diverse people with diverse cultures
• physical, cultural, and intellectual
• source of resistance to slavery,
imperialism, and racism
Alexander Falconbridge’s account of the slave trade
From the time of the arrival of the ships to their departure, which is usually near three months,
scarce a day passes without some negroes being purchased, and carried on board; sometimes in
small, and sometimes in larger numbers. The whole number taken on board, depends, in a great
measure, on circumstances. In a voyage I once made, our stock of merchandize was exhausted in
the purchase of about 380 negroes, which was expected to have procured 500. The number of
English and French ships then at Bonny, had so far raised the price of negroes, as to occasion this
difference. . . .
. . . I was once upon the coast of Angola, also, when there had not been a slave ship at the river
Ambris for five years previous to our arrival, although a place to which many usually resort
every year. The failure of the trade for that period, as far as we could learn, had no other effect
than to restore peace and confidence among the natives, which, upon the arrival of ships, is
immediately destroyed by the inducement then held forth in the purchase of slaves. . . .
. . . Previous to my being in this employ I entertained a belief, as many others have done, that the
kings and principal men bred Negroes for sale as we do cattle. During the different times I was in
the country, I took no little pains to satisfy myself in this particular; but notwithstanding I made
many inquires, I was not able to obtain the least intelligence of this being the case. . . . All the
information I could procure confirms me in the belief that to kidnapping, and to crimes (and
many of these fabricated as a pretext) the slave trade owes its chief support. . . .
. . . When the Negroes, whom the black traders have to dispose of [sell], are shown to the
European purchasers, they first examine them relative to their age. They then minutely inspect
their persons and inquire into the state of their health; if they are afflicted with any disease or are
deformed or have bad eyes or teeth; if they are lame or weak in the joints or distorted in the back
or of a slender make or narrow in the chest; in short, if they have been ill or are afflicted in any
manner so as to render them incapable of much labor. If any of the foregoing defects are
discovered in them they are rejected. But if approved of, they are generally taken on board the
ship the same evening. The purchaser has liberty to return on the following morning, but not
afterwards, such as upon re-examination are found exceptionable.
The traders frequently beat those Negroes which are objected to by the captains and use them
with great severity. It matters not whether they are refused on account of age, illness, deformity
or for any other reason. At New Calabar, in particular, the traders have frequently been known to
put them to death. Instances have happened at that place, when Negroes have been objected to,
that the traders have dropped their canoes under the stern of the vessel and instantly beheaded
them in sight of the captain. . . .
. . . Nor do these unhappy beings, after they become the property of the Europeans (from whom,
as a more civilized people, more humanity might naturally be expected), find their situation in
the least amended. Their treatment is no less rigorous. The men Negroes, on being brought
aboard the ship, are immediately fastened together, two and two, by handcuffs on their wrists and
by irons rivetted on their legs. They are then sent down between the decks and placed in an
apartment partitioned off for that purpose. The women also are placed in a separate apartment
between decks, but without being ironed. An adjoining room on the same deck is appointed for
the boys. Thus they are all placed in different apartments.
But at the same time, however, they are frequently stowed so close, as to admit of no other
position than lying on their sides. Nor will the height between decks, unless directly under the
grating, permit the indulgence of an erect posture; especially where there are platforms, which is
generally the case. These platforms are a kind of shelf, about eight or nine feet in breadth,
extending from the side of the ship toward the centre. They are placed nearly midway between
the decks, at the distance of two or three feet from each deck. Upon these the Negroes are stowed
in the same manner as they are on the deck underneath.
In each of the apartments are placed three or four large buckets, of a conical form, nearly two
feet in diameter at the bottom and only one foot at the top and in depth of about twenty-eight
inches, to which, when necessary, the Negroes have recourse. It often happens that those who are
placed at a distance from the buckets, in endeavoring to get to them, rumble over their
companions, in consequence of their being shackled. These accidents, although unavoidable, are
productive of continual quarrels in which some of them are always bruised. In this distressed
situation, unable to proceed and prevented from getting to the tubs, they desist from the attempt;
and as the necessities of nature are not to be resisted, ease themselves as they lie. This becomes a
fresh source of boils and disturbances and tends to render the condition of the poor captive
wretches still more uncomfortable. The nuisance arising from these circumstances is not
infrequently increased by the tubs being much too small for the purpose intended and their being
usually emptied but once every day. The rule for doing so, however, varies in different ships
according to the attention paid to the health and convenience of the slaves by the captain….
…The diet of the Negroes while on board, consists chiefly of horse beans boiled to the
consistency of a pulp; of boiled yams and rice and sometimes a small quantity of beef or pork.
The latter are frequently taken from the provisions laid in for the sailors. They sometimes make
use of a sauce composed of palm-oil mixed with flour, water and pepper, which the sailors call
slabber-sauce. Yams are the favorite food of the Eboe or Bight Negroes, and rice or corn of those
from the Gold or Windward Coast; each preferring the produce of their native soil….
…Upon the Negroes refusing to take sustenance, I have seen coals of fire, glowing hot, put on a
shovel and placed so near their lips as to scorch and burn them. And this has been accompanied
with threats of forcing them to swallow the coals if they any longer persisted in refusing to eat.
These means have generally had the desired effect. I have also been credibly informed that a
certain captain in the slave-trade, poured melted lead on such of his Negroes as obstinately
refused their food….
…The hardships and inconveniences suffered by the Negroes during the passage are scarcely to
be enumerated or conceived. They are far more violently affected by seasickness than
Europeans. It frequently terminates in death, especially among the women. But the exclusion of
fresh air is among the most intolerable. For the purpose of admitting this needful refreshment,
most of the ships in the slave trade are provided, between the decks, with five or six air-ports on
each side of the ship, of about five inches in length and four in breadth. In addition, some ships,
but not one in twenty, have what they denominate wind-sails. But whenever the sea is rough and
the rain heavy it becomes necessary to shut these and every other conveyance by which the air is
admitted. The fresh air being thus excluded, the Negroes’ rooms soon grow intolerable hot. The
confined air, rendered noxious by the effluvia exhaled from their bodies and being repeatedly
breathed, soon produces fevers and fluxes which generally carries off great numbers of them.
During the voyages I made, I was frequently witness to the fatal effects of this exclusion of fresh
air. I will give one instance, as it serves to convey some idea, though a very faint one, of their
terrible sufferings…. Some wet and blowing weather having occasioned the port-holes to be shut
and the grating to be covered, fluxes and fevers among the Negroes ensued. While they were in
this situation, I frequently went down among them till at length their room became so extremely
hot as to be only bearable for a very short time. But the excessive heat was not the only thing that
rendered their situation intolerable. The deck, that is the floor of their rooms, was so covered
with the blood and mucus which had proceeded from them in consequence of the flux, that it
resembled a slaughter-house. It is not in the power of the human imagination to picture a
situation more dreadful or disgusting. Numbers of the slaves having fainted, they were carried
upon deck where several of them died and the rest with great difficulty were restored. It had
nearly proved fatal to me also. The climate was too warm to admit the wearing of any clothing
but a shirt and that I had pulled off before I went down…. In a quarter of an hour I was so
overcome with the heat, stench and foul air that I nearly fainted, and it was only with assistance I
could get back on deck. The consequence was that I soon after fell sick of the same disorder
from which I did not recover for several months…
…This devastation, great as it was, some years ago was greatly exceeded by a Leverpool ship . . .
This ship, though a much smaller ship than in which I have just mentioned, took on board at
Bonny at least six hundred Negroes . . . By purchasing so great a number, the slaves were so
crowded that they were obliged to lie one upon another. This caused such a mortality among
them that without meeting with unusually bad weather or having a longer voyage than common,
nearly one half of them died before the ship arrived in the West Indies….
…The place allotted for the sick Negroes is under the half deck, where they lie on the bare
planks. By this means those who are emaciated frequently have their skin and even their flesh
entirely rubbed off, by the motion of the ship, from the prominent parts of the shoulders, elbows
and hips so as to render the bones quite bare.
And some of them, by constantly lying in the blood and mucus that had flowed from those
afflicted with the flux and which is generally so violent as to prevent their being kept clean,
having their flesh much sooner rubbed off than those who have only to contend with the mere
friction of the ship. The excruciating pain which the poor sufferers feel from being obliged to
continue in such a dreadful situation, frequently for several weeks, in case they happen to live so
long, is not to be conceived or described. Few, indeed, are able to withstand the fatal effects of it.
The utmost skill of the surgeon is here ineffectual. If plasters are applied they are very soon
displaced by the friction of the ship, and when bandages are used the Negroes soon take them off
and appropriate them to other purposes….
…As very few of the Negroes can so far brook the loss of their liberty and the hardships they
endure, they are ever on the watch to take advantage of the least negligence in their oppressors.
Insurrections are frequently the consequence; which are seldom expressed without much
bloodshed. Sometimes these are successful and the whole ship’s company is cut off. They are
likewise always ready to seize every opportunity for committing some acts of desperation to free
themselves from their miserable state and notwithstanding the restraints which are laid, they
often succeed….
…The mode of selling them by scramble having fallen under my observation the oftenest, I shall
be more particular in describing it. Being some years ago, at one of the islands in the West
Indies, I was witness to a sale by scramble, where about 250 Negroes were sold. Upon this
occasion all the Negroes scrambled for bear an equal price; which is agreed upon between the
captains and the purchasers before the sale begins. On a day appointed, the Negroes were landed
and placed together in a large yard belonging to the merchants to whom the ship was consigned.
As soon as the hour agreed on arrived, the doors of the yard were suddenly thrown open and in
rushed a considerable number of purchasers, with all the ferocity of brutes. Some instantly seized
such of the Negroes as they could conveniently lay hold of with their hands. Others being
prepared with several handkerchiefs tied together, encircled as many as they were able. While
others, by means of a rope, effected the same purpose. It is scarcely possible to describe the
confusion of which this mode of selling is productive….
…Various deceptions at used in the disposal of sick slaves and many of these must excite in
every humane mind the liveliest sensations of horror. I have been well informed that a Leverpool
captain boasted of his having cheated some Jews by the following stratagem. A lot of slaves
afflicted with the flux, being about to be landed for sale, he directed the ship’s surgeons to stop
the anus of each of them with oakum. Thus prepared they were landed and taken to the
accustomed place of sale, where, being unable to stand but for a very short time they were
usually permitted to sit. The buyers, when they examine them, oblige them to stand up in order to
see if there be any discharge; and when they do not perceive this appearance they consider it as a
symptom of recovery. In the present instance, such an appearance being prevented, the bargain
was struck and the slaves were accordingly sold. But it was not long before discovery ensued.
The excrutiating pain which the prevention of a discharge of such an acrimonious nature
occasioned, not being able to be borne by the poor wretches, the temporary obstruction was
removed and the deluded purchasers were speedily convinced of the imposition.
Black Voyage-Eyewitness Accounts of the Atlantic Slave Trade, by Alexander Falconbridge, edited By Thomas
Little Brown & Company, Boston
Religion, the
Enlightenment, and
Reinforcing Intellectual
Racism and Sexism
The belief or attitude or both that certain human groups
are–by virtue of heredity–physically, intellectually, and
otherwise inherently and collectively superior to other
groups and that this innate superiority is a determining
factor in social affairs.
Dictionary of Concepts in History

racism – human groups determined by skin color
and physical characteristics
sexism – human groups determined by gender
Expressions of Racism
slurs and jokes
violence and

reason and evidence – cognitive
mythology – Phaethon – scorched
religious explanations – mark of
Cain and Hamitic myth
scientific explanations – biological
differences create behavior
Cursed servility
Genesis, Chapter Nine:
Cursed be Canaan;
A servant of servants shall he be
unto his brethren.
And he said,
Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Shem;
And let Canaan be his servant.
God enlarge Japhet,
And let him dwell in the tent of Shem;
And let Canaan be his servant.
Adam and Eve

original sin
weak – inability to control impulses
deceptive – conniving seductress who failed to
ideal – lifelong commitment to
marital fidelity, servile
submission a