I need help in writing an EXPOSITIONARY ESSAY on a contemporary issue facing the U.S. Army in one of three cate

I need help in writing an EXPOSITIONARY ESSAY on a contemporary issue facing the U.S. Army in one of three categories; Leadership, Operations, or Management, using your personal experience and at least three references (Wikipedia IS NOT an acceptable reference) to support your context. This paper must set forth an argument concerning your own experience, in one of those three categories, in a clear and concise manner; using correct grammar, sentence structure, and word usage. Provide a coherent transition from one topic to the next using structure, and transition sentences. Your essay should be in Times New Roman, 12pt font, APA 6th edition format with no abstract, and must be four to five pages in length not including your title and reference page. the recommended online resource for APA style writing is the Purdue University Owl website@ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/.Note: I want the paper based on leadership, if possible out of the three categories ( Leadership, Operations, or Management)Note: I need minimum three REFERENCE you can use FM 6 – 22 Leader Development as one of three sources.This is helpful information to understand the basic knowledge in helping to write the EXPOSITIONARY ESSAY What is leadership?Leadership is the process of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to accomplish the mission and improve the organization.What is an Army Leader?An Army leader is anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and influences people to accomplish organizational goals.How can leaders mitigate resistance?Leaders can mitigate resistance by anticipating what others value, their reactions to influence, their shared understanding of common goals, and their commitment to the general organization or the purpose of the mission and their trust in the organization and the leader.What conveys the expectations that the Army wants leaders to meet?The Leadership Requirements Model What are the leader attributes?Character, presence and intellect.What are the three categories of competencies?The Army leader serves to lead others.The Army leader serves to develop the environment, themselves, others and the profession as a whole.The Army leader serves to achieve organizational goals.


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*FM 6-22
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, -XQH
Field Manual
No. 6-22
Leader Development
Contents
Page
PREFACE…………………………………………………………………………………………………v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………….Y
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………vi
Chapter 1
LEADER DEVELOPMENT …………………………………………………………………….. 1-1
Tenets of Army Leader Development……………………………………………………….. 1-1
The Challenge for Leader Development …………………………………………………… 1-2
Leadership Requirements ………………………………………………………………………. 1-3
Cohesive and Effective Teams ………………………………………………………………… 1-5
Growth Across Levels of Leadership and by Cohorts …………………………………. 1-7
Transitions across Organizational Levels………………………………………………….. 1-8
Chapter 2
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT …………………………………………………………………. 2-1
Unit Leader Development Programs ………………………………………………………… 2-2
Evaluation of Leader Development Programs………………………………………….. 2-18
Chapter 3
FUNDAMENTALS OF DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………….. 3-1
Section I – Setting Conditions ……………………………………………………………… 3-2
Learning Environment ……………………………………………………………………………. 3-3
Knowledge of Subordinates…………………………………………………………………….. 3-6
Section II – Providing Feedback …………………………………………………………… 3-8
Observation Planning …………………………………………………………………………….. 3-8
Accurate Observations and Assessments…………………………………………………. 3-8
Feedback Delivery ……………………………………………………………………………….. 3-11
Section III – Enhancing Learning ………………………………………………………… 3-16
Leader Role Models …………………………………………………………………………….. 3-17
Mentorship ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-17
Guided Discovery Learning …………………………………………………………………… 3-22
Coaching…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-25
Study………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-26
Section IV – Creating Opportunities ……………………………………………………. 3-28
Challenging Experiences ………………………………………………………………………. 3-29
Leader Selection………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-30
Leader Succession ………………………………………………………………………………. 3-31
Career Development and Management ………………………………………………….. 3-32
Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.
*This publication supersedes FM 6-22, dated 12 October 2006.
i
Contents
Chapter 4
SELF-DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………………………………….. 4-1
Strengths and Developmental Needs Determination……………………………………4-1
Goal Setting …………………………………………………………………………………………..4-5
Self-enhanced Learning …………………………………………………………………………..4-9
Learning in Action …………………………………………………………………………………4-16
Chapter 5
UNIQUE ASPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………. 5-1
Character ………………………………………………………………………………………………5-1
Judgment and Problem Solving ………………………………………………………………..5-2
Adaptability…………………………………………………………………………………………….5-7
Chapter 6
LEADER PERFORMANCE INDICATORS………………………………………………… 6-1
Accurate and Descriptive Observations ……………………………………………………..6-1
Application of the Performance Indicators ………………………………………………….6-1
Chapter 7
LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ……………………………………….. 7-1
Capability Evaluation and Expansion…………………………………………………………7-1
Developmental Activities ………………………………………………………………………….7-2
Leads Others………………………………………………………………………………………….7-5
Builds Trust ………………………………………………………………………………………….7-10
Extends Influence Beyond the Chain of Command ……………………………………7-12
Leads by Example…………………………………………………………………………………7-15
Communicates ……………………………………………………………………………………..7-23
Creates a Positive Environment/Fosters Esprit de Corps…………………………… 7-28
Prepares Self ……………………………………………………………………………………….7-38
Develops Others …………………………………………………………………………………..7-46
Stewards the Profession ………………………………………………………………………..7-51
Gets Results…………………………………………………………………………………………7-53
GLOSSARY ……………………………………………………………………………… Glossary-1
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………. References-1
INDEX …………………………………………………………………………………………… Index-1
Figures
Introductory Figure 1. Integrating diagram ……………………………………………………………………. vii
Figure 1-1. Army leadership requirements model ………………………………………………………… 1-4
Figure 1-2. Army team building process model …………………………………………………………… 1-6
Figure 2-1. Example unit leader development program outline ……………………………………… 2-8
Figure 2-2. Example unit leader development program ………………………………………………… 2-9
Figure 2-3. Example battalion NCO development program …………………………………………. 2-12
Figure 2-4. Example battalion platoon sergeant development program ………………………… 2-13
Figure 2-5. Example battalion leader development program for lieutenants ………………….. 2-15
Figure 2-6. Example unit leader development scorecard ……………………………………………. 2-19
Figure 3-1. Fundamentals of developing leaders ………………………………………………………… 3-2
Figure 3-2. Example IDP ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-7
Figure 3-3. Example SOAR feedback notes ……………………………………………………………… 3-10
Figure 4-1. Example of self-development goal development…………………………………………. 4-8
ii
FM 6-22
-XQH
Contents
Tables
Table 1-1. Principles of mission command linkage to Army leadership requirements ……….. 1-5
Table 1-2. Signs of ineffective and effective teams ………………………………………………………. 1-7
Table 2-1. Goals and end states of the leader development plan…………………………………… 2-4
Table 2-2. Enablers for learning ………………………………………………………………………………… 2-5
Table 2-3. Developmental activities and opportunities ………………………………………………….. 2-6
Table 3-1. Learning principles ……………………………………………………………………………………3-5
Table 3-2. Mentor roles and responsibilities………………………………………………………………. 3-18
Table 5-1. Examples of reflective questions………………………………………………………………… 5-3
Table 5-2. Example questions to focus thinking …………………………………………………………… 5-5
Table 5-3. Skills and characteristics of adaptability………………………………………………………. 5-7
Table 6-1. Framing the Army Values, empathy, Warrior/Service ethos, and discipline ……… 6-3
Table 6-2. Framing presence ……………………………………………………………………………………. 6-4
Table 6-3. Framing intellect ………………………………………………………………………………………. 6-5
Table 6-4. Framing leads………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6-6
Table 6-5. Framing develops …………………………………………………………………………………….. 6-7
Table 6-6. Framing achieves …………………………………………………………………………………….. 6-8
Table 7-1. Identification of developmental goal …………………………………………………………….7-1
Table 7-2. Methods to implement developmental activities …………………………………………… 7-2
Table 7-3. Evaluation model ………………………………………………………………………………………7-3
Table 7-4. Leadership competencies and actions listing ………………………………………………. 7-4
Table 7-5. Uses appropriate methods of influence to energize others…………………………….. 7-6
Table 7-6. Provides purpose …………………………………………………………………………………….. 7-7
Table 7-7. Enforces standards ………………………………………………………………………………….. 7-8
Table 7-8. Balances mission and welfare of followers ………………………………………………….. 7-9
Table 7-9. Sets personal example for trust ……………………………………………………………….. 7-10
Table 7-10. Takes direct actions to build trust……………………………………………………………. 7-11
Table 7-11. Sustains a climate of trust ……………………………………………………………………… 7-12
Table 7-12. Understands sphere, means, and limits of influence …………………………………. 7-13
Table 7-13. Negotiates, builds consensus, and resolves conflict………………………………….. 7-14
Table 7-14. Displays Army Values …………………………………………………………………………… 7-16
Table 7-15. Displays empathy …………………………………………………………………………………. 7-17
Table 7-16. Exemplifies the Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos …………………………………………… 7-18
Table 7-17. Applies discipline ………………………………………………………………………………….. 7-19
Table 7-18. Leads with confidence in adverse situations …………………………………………….. 7-20
Table 7-19. Demonstrates tactical and technical competence……………………………………… 7-21
Table 7-20. Understands and models conceptual skills ………………………………………………. 7-22
Table 7-21. Seeks diverse ideas and points of view …………………………………………………… 7-23
Table 7-22. Listens actively ……………………………………………………………………………………..7-24
Table 7-23. Creates shared understanding ……………………………………………………………….. 7-25
Table 7-24. Employs engaging communication techniques …………………………………………. 7-26
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FM 6-22
iii
Contents
Table 7-25. Sensitive to cultural factors in communication………………………………………….. 7-27
Table 7-26. Fosters teamwork, cohesion, cooperation, and loyalty ……………………………… 7-29
Table 7-27. Encourages fairness and inclusiveness ………………………………………………….. 7-30
Table 7-28. Encourages open and candid communications ………………………………………… 7-31
Table 7-29. Creates a learning environment …………………………………………………………….. 7-32
Table 7-30. Encourages subordinates ……………………………………………………………………… 7-34
Table 7-31. Demonstrates care for follower well-being ………………………………………………. 7-35
Table 7-32. Anticipates people’s duty needs …………………………………………………………….. 7-36
Table 7-33. Sets and maintains high expectations for individuals and teams ………………… 7-37
Table 7-34. Maintains mental and physical health and well-being ……………………………….. 7-39
Table 7-35. Expands knowledge of technical, technological, and tactical areas …………….. 7-40
Table 7-36. Expands conceptual and interpersonal capabilities ………………………………….. 7-41
Table 7-37. Analyzes and organizes information to create knowledge …………………………. 7-42
Table 7-38. Maintains relevant cultural awareness ……………………………………………………. 7-43
Table 7-39. Maintains relevant geopolitical awareness ………………………………………………. 7-44
Table 7-40. Maintains self-awareness ……………………………………………………………………… 7-45
Table 7-41. Assesses developmental needs of others ……………………………………………….. 7-46
Table 7-42. Counsels, coaches, and mentors …………………………………………………………… 7-47
Table 7-43. Facilitates ongoing development ……………………………………………………………. 7-48
Table 7-44. Builds team skills and processes ……………………………………………………………. 7-50
Table 7-45. Supports professional and personal growth …………………………………………….. 7-51
Table 7-46. Improves the organization …………………………………………………………………….. 7-52
Table 7-47. Prioritizes, organizes, and coordinates taskings ………………………………………. 7-54
Table 7-48. Identifies and accounts for capabilities and commitment to task ………………… 7-55
Table 7-49. Designates, clarifies, and deconflicts duties and responsibilities ………………… 7-56
Table 7-50. Identifies, contends for, allocates, and manages resources ………………………. 7-57
Table 7-51. Removes work obstacles ………………………………………………………………………. 7-58
Table 7-52. Recognizes and rewards good performance ……………………………………………. 7-59
Table 7-53. Seeks, recognizes, and takes advantage of opportunities …………………………. 7-60
Table 7-54. Makes feedback part of work processes …………………………………………………. 7-61
Table 7-55. Executes plans to accomplish the mission ………………………………………………. 7-62
Table 7-56. Identifies and adjusts to external influences …………………………………………….. 7-63
iv
FM 6-22
-XQH
Preface
FM 6-22 Leader Development provides a doctrinal framework covering methods for leaders to develop other
leaders, improve their organizations, build teams, and develop themselves.
The principal audience for FM 6-22 is all leaders, military and civilian, with an application focus at the operational
and tactical levels. Trainers and educators throughout the Army will also use this manual.
Commanders, staffs, and subordinates ensure their decisions and actions comply with applicable U.S.,
international, and, in some cases, host-nation laws and regulations. Commanders at all levels ensure their Soldiers
operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement (see FM 27-10).
FM 6-22 uses joint terms where applicable. Selected joint and Army terms and definitions appear in both the
glossary and the text. Terms for which FM 6-22 is the proponent publication (the authority) are marked with an
asterisk (*) in the glossary. Definitions for which FM 6-22 is the proponent publication are boldfaced in the text.
For other definitions shown in the text, the term is italicized and the number of the proponent publication follows
the definition.
This publication incorporates copyrighted material.
FM 6-22 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, and United
States Army Reserve unless otherwise stated.
The proponent of FM 6-22 is Headquarters, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command. The preparing agency
is the Center for Army Leadership, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center—Mission Command Center of
Excellence. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications
and Blank Forms) to Center for Army Leadership, ATTN: ATZL-MCV-R, 290 Stimson Avenue, Fort
Leavenworth, KS 66027-1293; by e-mail to usarmy.leavenworth.tradoc.mbx.6-22@mail.mil; or submit an
electronic DA Form 2028.
LIVING DOCTRINE
Bringing Doctrine to Life
The Army is committed to delivering doctrine to our Soldiers and civilians through the various media used in
everyday life. FM 6-22 is available in an eReader format for download to commercial mobile devices from the
Army Publishing Directorate (www.apd.army.mil). A platform-neutral application (LeaderMap) has also been
developed to augment the content of the manual with additional multi-media material. LeaderMap is available
thru the Central Army Registry (www.adtdl.army.mil) and can be found by typing LeaderMap into the search
function after signing in. A fully enhanced interactive version of FM 6-22 for commercial devices will be available
at the Army Training Network (https://atn.army.mil/). The fully enhanced interactive version integrates video,
audio, and interactivity to enhance the overall learning and reading experience. An announcement will be made
Armywide as soon as the interactive version is fielded.
Acknowledgements
This manual contains copyrighted material as indicated:
Chapter 2, paragraphs 2-6, 2-7, and 2-28 and the example scorecard; Chapter 3, paragraphs 3-4–3-5, 3-7–3-9,
3-11–3-13,4, 3-20–3-34, 3-57–3-60, 3-106, 3-117–3-122, 3-124–3-126, 3-134–3-136, and special callout texts
within these paragraphs; and chapter 4, paragraphs 4-57–4-59 and the personal after action review (AAR) on page
4-12 come from Commander’s Handbook for Unit Leader Development, Copyright © 2007 United States
Government, as represented by the Secretary of the Army. All rights reserved.
Chapter 4, paragraphs 4-8–4-15, 4-19–4-57, and 4-61–4-74 and the analysis exercises on pages 4-4 and 4-5 come
from Self-Development Handbook, Copyright © 2008 United States Government, as represented by the Secretary
of the Army. All rights reserved.
-XQH
FM 6-22
v
Introduction
Army leaders are the competitive advantage the Army possesses that technology cannot replace nor be substituted
by advanced weaponry and platforms. Today’s Army demands trained and ready units with agile, proficient
leaders. Developing our leaders is integral to our institutional success today and tomorrow. It is an important
investment to make for the future of the Army because it builds trust in relationships and units, prepares leaders
for future uncertainty, and is critical to readiness and our Army’s success. Leader development programs must
recognize, produce, and reward leaders who are inquisitive, creative, adaptable, and capable of exercising mission
command. Leaders exhibit commitment to developing subordinates through execution of their professional
responsibility to teach, counsel, coach, and mentor subordinates. Successful, robust leader development programs
incorporate accountability, engagement, and commitment; create agile and competent leaders; produce stronger
organizations and teams; and increase expertise by reducing gaps between knowledge and resources.
Leader development involves multiple practices that ensure people have the opportunities to fulfill their goals and
that the Army has capable leaders in position and ready for the future. The practices include recruiting, accessions,
training, education, assigning, promoting, broadening, and retaining the best leaders, while challenging them over
time with greater responsibility, authority, and accountability. Army leaders assume progressively broader
responsibilities across direct, organizational, and strategic levels of leadership.
FM 6-22 integrates doctrine, experience, and best practices by drawing upon applicable Army doctrine and
regulations, input of successful Army commanders and noncommissioned officers, recent Army leadership
studies, and research on effective practices from the private and public sectors.
FM 6-22 provides Army leaders with information on effective leader development methods by:
z
Translating Army leader feedback into quick applications.
z
Prioritizing leader development activities under conditions of limited resources.
z
Integrating unit leader development into already occurring day-to-day activities.
z
Integrating ADRP 6-22 leader attributes and competencies consistently across Army leader
development doctrine.
FM 6-22 contains seven chapters that describe the Army’s view on identifying and executing collective and
individual leader development needs:
Chapter 1 discusses the tenets of Army leader development, the purpose of developing leaders to practice the
mission command philosophy, building teams, and development transitions across organizational levels.
Chapter 2 discusses the creation of unit leader development programs.
Chapter 3 addresses the fundamentals for developing leaders in units by setting conditions, providing feedback,
and enhancing learning while creating opportunities.
Chapter 4 provides information on the self-development process including strengths and developmental needs
determination and goal setting.
Chapter 5 discusses character, judgment and problem solving, and adaptability as situational leader demands.
Chapter 6 provides information on leader performance indicators to enable observations and feedback.
Chapter 7 provides recommended learning and developmental activities.
The References section includes pertinent links to recommended leader development readings and Web sites.
Introductory figure 1 illustrates how the information within this manual fits together.
vi
FM 6-22
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Introduction
Introductory Figure 1. Integrating diagram
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FM 6-22
vii
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Chapter 1
Leader Development
1-1. The Army depends upon itself to develop adaptable leaders able to achieve mission accomplishment
in dynamic, unstable, and complex environments. A robust, holistic leader development program is essential.
Through a mix of education, training, and experience, Army leader development processes produce and
sustain agile, adaptive, and innovative leaders who act with boldness and initiative in dynamic, complex
situations to execute missions according to doctrine, orders, and training. Furthermore, it also produces
leaders that possess the integrity and willingness to act in the absence of orders, when existing orders, doctrine
or their own experience no longer fit the situation, or when unforeseen opportunities or threats arise. Properly
designed leader development programs develop trusted leaders of character, competence, and commitment.
The goal is to develop Army leaders who clearly provide purpose, direction, motivation, and vision to their
teams and subordinates while executing missions to support their commander’s intent. Leaders at all levels
need to be prepared to understand the strategic context for execution and success of any mission.
1-2. Leader development is fundamental to our Army—leader development is the deliberate, continuous,
sequential, and progressive process—founded in Army values—that grows Soldiers and Army Civilians into
competent and confident leaders capable of decisive action. Leader development is achieved through the lifelong synthesis of the knowledge, skills, and experiences gained through the training and education
opportunities in the institutional, operational, and self-development domains (AR 350-1). A key component
of leader development is remaining focused on the professionalism of our leaders and those they lead. By
developing and promoting a professional force, the Army develops trust on several levels: between Soldiers;
between Soldiers and leaders; between Soldiers and Army Civilians; between the Soldiers, their families and
the Army; and between the Army and the American people. This is why the Army is committed to providing
quality institutions of education and training along with challenging experiences throughout a career.
TENETS OF ARMY LEADER DEVELOPMENT
1-3. The tenets of Army leader development provide the essential principles that have made the Army
successful at developing its leaders. The tenets also provide a backdrop for the Army principles of unit
training (see ADRP 7-0). The overarching tenets of Army leader development are—
z
Strong commitment by the Army, superiors, and individuals to leader development.
z
Clear purpose for what, when, and how to develop leadership.
z
Supportive relationships and culture of learning.
z
Three mutually supportive domains (institutional, operational, and self-development) that enable
education, training, and experience.
z
Providing, accepting, and acting upon candid assessment and feedback.
1-4. Development of people is an Army priority. Commitment represents intention and engagement from
the individual, from supportive leaders, and from the Army. Beyond their directed responsibility to develop
subordinates, leaders want to serve in an organization that values camaraderie and teamwork and improves
the capabilities of others. Leaders have a directed responsibility to develop their subordinates; accountability
for implementation follows responsibility. Leaders must be committed to the development of others and
themselves. Teams change and organizations change when individuals choose to engage and improve.
1-5. Development depends on having clear purpose for what, when and how to develop. Good leader
development is purposeful and goal-oriented. A clearly established purpose enables leaders to guide, assess,
and accomplish development. The principles of leader development describe goals for what leaders need to
be developed to do: leading by example, developing subordinates, creating a positive environment for
learning, exercising the art and science of mission command, adaptive performance, critical and creative
thinking, and knowing subordinates and their families. The core leader competencies and attributes identified
-XQH
FM 6-22
1-1
Chapter 1
in ADRP 6-22 and the Army Leader Development Strategy (ALDS) provide additional detail of what leaders
need to be able to do.
1-6. Supportive relationships and a culture of learning recognize that for development to occur a willingness
to engage with others must exist. This tenet relates to two of the principles of leader development: creating a
learning environment and knowing subordinates and their families (see ADRP 7-0). Leaders, organizations,
and the entire Army must set the conditions for development to occur. Leader development is a mindset
incorporated into all organizational requirements and mission accomplishment. Leaders must balance leader
development against organizational requirements and mission performance. In operational units and other
organizations, development can occur concurrently with training and mission performance, especially when
leaders create an environment that places real value and accountability on leader development activities and
the Soldiers and civilians to be developed.
1-7. Development occurs through both formal systems and informal practices. Reception and integration,
newcomer training, developmental tasks and assignments, individual and collective training, educational
events, transition or succession planning, and broadening are all activities where development occurs and
should be encouraged. Development involves experiential learning that is consistent with the principle of
train as you fight. The performance of duties is always an opportunity for learning while doing. Any
experience that shapes and improves performance enhances development.
1-8. Feedback is necessary to guide and gauge development. Formal and informal feedback based on
observation and assessment provide information to confirm or increase self-awareness about developmental
progress. The Army established performance monitoring, evaluation reports, coaching, mentoring, and
growth counseling processes to engage leaders and individuals. Each is essential for development.
THE CHALLENGE FOR LEADER DEVELOPMENT
1-9. The Army must develop leaders comfortable making decisions with available information and
prepared to underwrite the honest mistakes subordinates make when learning. These same leaders must also
be capable of developing others to be adaptive, creative, professional, and disciplined to execute any mission.
Leaders should place emphasis on holistic programs that range across grades from enlisted through senior
officers and the Army Civilian Corps.
1-10. Developing leaders involves a holistic, comprehensive, and purposeful group of activities. More than
any set of activities, success stems from a culture where leaders with a mindset and passion for developing
others use daily opportunities to learn and teach. Leader development occurs at home station, in offices,
laboratories, depots, maintenance bays, during exercises, and while deployed. Limited day-to-day interaction
with their units and subordinates challenges Reserve Component leaders. At the same time, they benefit from
the civilian skills of their subordinates. Reserve Component leaders should use the experience and leadership
acquired by their Soldiers from their civilian careers and develop strategies that can be executed on-duty and
off, keeping in mind the balance that must be achieved between their subordinate’s Army duties, civilian
position, and family life. For all cohorts, the Army must sustain the continuous development of future leaders.
1-11. Successful leaders recognize that they must continually develop their subordinates by maximizing
opportunities in the institutional, operational, and self-development domains. It is critical to the long-term
sustainment of the Army. Leaders are responsible for ensuring their organizations develop subordinates,
perform missions, apply doctrinally sound principles in training, and exercise stewardship of resources.
Along with responsibility comes accountability. Accountability speaks to two levels: leaders held
accountable for how well they have developed their sub