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Chapter 8
The Era of Modern European States
Britain Rules the Waves
 Royal navy builds an empire
◼ Ended the slave trade by about 1850
 Important naval bases throughout the world
◼ Singapore, Hong Kong, Malta. South Africa and
 Castlereagh and other British leaders
◼ Determined to use fleet for the greatest good
The Crimean War
 Britain uneasy over Russian threat in Black Sea
and against Ottoman Empire
◼ Peaceful attempts at resolution of tensions failed
 Russia proved a tough opponent
◼ Horrible plight of British troops:
Charge of the Light Brigade
Peace Attempts
 Russia withdrew troops from Balkans and
mouth of the Danube River
 Tsar forced to scuttle Russian Black Sea fleet
 New Tsar Alexander II signed the Treaty of Paris
 ‘Sick Man of Europe’ Ottoman Empire
propped up
Italian Unification
◼ Revolutions of 1848
◼ Roles of Giuseppe Garibaldi, Giuseppe Mazzini and
Camillo Cavour in Italian Unification movement
◼ Italian state based upon the Kingdom of Piedmont
and King Victor Immanuel II and able Machiavellian
minister, Camillo Cavour
 Kingdom of Piedmont sided with Great Britain
and France during Crimean War
The New Italy
 Agitation for a Republic continued by Mazzini
and Garibaldi’s supporters
◼ French troops remained in Rome to protect Pope
 Divided Italy and regionalism
◼ Prosperous North and poverty of South
hampered national unity
Unification of Germany
 Rise of German nationalism
 1860 ascension of Wilhelm I as
King of Prussia
 Bismarck confronts Liberal Parliament
 Bismarck planned to eliminate Austria
as a competitor for German unification
The Path to Unification through War
 War over Schleswig-Holstein with
Denmark, 1863
◼ Austria and Prussia defeated the Danes
 Bismarck provoked conflicts with Austria over
Convention administration
◼ Prussia declared war on Austria, June 1, 1866
 Treaty of Prague
◼ Austria forced to give up all claims in Germany
The Franco-Prussian War
 Bismarck orchestrates a new war over the Spanish
Succession in July of 1870
◼ Napoleon III alarmed at German becoming
king of Spain
 France easily defeated by superior Prussian tactics, use
of technology and leadership
◼ Napoleon abdicated as Bismarck sought
harsh peace terms
 War continued as Germans surrounded Paris
◼ France fought on and surprised divided German leadership
France: The Third Republic
 Rise of Napoleon III and the Second French Empire
◼ Napoleon III and the Liberal Empire
◼ After Franco-Prussian War went into exile in Great Britain
 Adolph Theirs and the Paris Commune
◼ Radical and socialistic government of Paris
◼ National Assembly troops put down radical Communard
government of Paris
◼ By 1875, Third Republic of France officially declared
The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
 A. Multi-National Empire
◼ Lost all influence in Germany after Seven Weeks’
◼ 1861 Emperor Francis Joseph issued the February
Patent calling for bicameral parliament
 B. Other nationalities angered over Dual
◼ Czechs, Slavs and Serbs wanted autonomy as well
◼ Czechs wanted Triple Monarchy opposed by
Hungarians and Germans living in Czech controlled
The Russian Empire
 Great changes in Russia between the years of the
Crimean War, 1854-1856, to the Russian
Revolution of 1917
◼ Tsar Alexander II was a reformer and effective leader
 Alexander II reformed the judicial system and
local governmental administration
◼ Created local governing councils made up of
nobles and freed serfs
 Forces of revolution continued to grow
◼ Polish Rebellion of 1863
1) What factors contributed to the growth of Britain’s
empire? What role does the navy play in that growth?
2) Who was Bismarck and why was he so passionate to
unify Germany? How did he succeed? What impact
did a unified Germany have on the remainder of
3) Discuss the move in France from the Empire of
Napoleon III to the Third Republic? Analyze the Paris
4) List and identify the leaders of Italian Unification.
The New Imperialism: The Changing
Balance of Power and European

Africa had impressive civilizations since
ancient times
– Africa remained isolated
– Europeans established trading posts along coasts
– Britain in Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Sudan

French Imperialism in Africa
– North Africa
– French West Africa

Other nations: Belgium, Portugal, Italy,
Spain and Germany take their share

Great Britain and India
– Queen Victoria as Empress of India
– Sepoys and the Great Rebellion, 1857

Southeast Asia
– France and Indo-China
– The Dutch East Indian Company
Russian expansionism in Siberia and Alaska
◼ Rise of Japanese imperialism and Admiral
Matthew Perry

China is the Big Prize
Europeans and America compete for
◼ Conflicts and wars

– Opium Wars
– Spheres of influence and the Boxer Rebellion
– United States imperialism, the SpanishAmerican War and America’s Open Door
Ideologies of Imperialism

Social Darwinism and
‘The White Man’s Burden’
– National rivalries, competition and the
‘survival of the fittest’

Economic interpretations of imperialism by
economist J. A. Hobson as the ‘highest
stage of capitalism’ published in 1917
– End of imperialism began with the
results of World War I
How does the New Imperialism
differ from the Old Imperialism
(or colonialism)?
What was the role of technology in
nineteenth century imperialism?
How did imperialism in Asia differ
from that in Africa?
What factors brought imperialism
to an end?

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