Hi,I attached questions on file… all multiple choices…

Hi,I attached questions on file… all multiple choices…


Part 1: Multiple Choice (2 pts ea)
1. An argument is:
A. A conflict between two parties.
B. A set of sentences in which reasons are given for a particular premise
C. A set of sentences in which reasons are given for a particular conclusion.
D. A set of sentences in which an opinion is articulated.
2. An argument is valid just in case
A. all the premises may be true, but the conclusion must be true.
B. if all the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true.
C. all the premises are true, and the conclusion is true.
D. if all the premises are true, then the conclusion may be true too.
3. If an argument is not valid* then
A. all the premises are false, and the conclusion is false too.
B. even if all the premises are true, the conclusion may be false.
C. all the premises may be false, but the conclusion must be false.
D. even if all the premises are false, the conclusion must be false.
4. An argument is *sound* just in case
A. it is valid
B. it is valid and has a true conclusion.
C. it is valid and all of its premises are true.
D. it is valid and at least one of its premises is true.
5. The difference between an inductive and a deductive argument is that:
A. Inductive arguments always proceed from particular to general, whereas deductive always
proceed from general to particular.
B. Inductive arguments always proceed from general to particular, whereas deductive always
proceed from particular to general.
C. Inductive arguments aim to provide partial support for their conclusion, whereas deductive
arguments aim to provide total support for their conclusion.
D. Inductive arguments aim to provide total support for their conclusion, whereas deductive
arguments aim to provide partial support for their conclusion.
C. Instrumental goodness is something that all things have, whereas intrinsic goodness is
something that is a matter of personal opinion.
22. What is the distinctive teleological function of human beings according to Aristotle?
A. To be happy.
B. To dominate other animals.
C. To be rational.
D. To set goals.
23. What does Aristotle take to be The Good?
A. Pleasure
B. Honor
C. Happiness
D. Wealth
24. What is happiness, according to Aristotle?
A. Rational activity of the soul in accordance with virtue.
B. Pleasure
C. A mental state
D. A feeling
25. What is virtue according to Aristotle?
A. A trait that most people approve of.
B. A trait that is conducive to gaining advantage.
C. A disposition that exists as the mean between two extremes.
D. A disposition to be happy with one’s situation.
26. What is the relationship between happiness and pleasure on Aristotle’s view?
A. Happiness is a kind of activity that will produce pleasure.
B. Happiness is a mental state that consists in pleasure.
C. A sufficient amount of pleasure is happiness.
D. Pleasure and happiness are entirely distinct.
27. Virtue ethics is concerned with questions about:
A. Maximizing good consequences
B. Following the right rules.
C. Discovering the agreed upon conventions of a particular social group.
D. Developing good character.
28. How does one develop moral virtue?
A. Through a process of instruction.
B. Through habituation and practice.
C. By recognition of the moral law.
D. Through an efficient pursuit of pleasure.
A. A person who had the capability to do anything would choose to be just.
B. A person who had the capability to do anything would choose to be unjust.
C. A person who knew the nature of both would choose to be just.
D. A person who knew the nature of both would choose to be unjust.
15. Socrates argues for censorship in the just society as a means of:
A. Encouraging civility.
B. Making the population more passive and easily manipulated.
C. Molding the character of citizens and increasing fitness for assigned roles.
D. Hiding harmful truths.
16. Which of the following accurately captures the classes and their corresponding virtues?
A. {, , }
B. {, , }
C. {, , }
D. {, , }
17. Socrates argues that the auxiliaries must develop the opposing character traits of gentleness
and fierceness. Why?
A. So that they experience internal conflict, and thus are more fit for combat.
B. So that they can empathize with others better.
C. So that they can be loyal to their citizens and brave when facing their enemies.
D. So that they can develop greater bonds amongst themselves.
18. The just individual is supposed to reflect the just state. What does this tell us about the
individual?
A. The just individual will seek the advice of others.
B. The just individual will have well-regulated and compartmentalized aspects of her
soul/mind.
C. The just individual will favor fine art over food.
D. The just individual will follow her desires.
19. The aristocratic person is influenced most by:
A. Her passions
B. Her reason
C. Her honor
D. Her friends
E. Everything equally
20. According to Plato, what will cause the decline of society from aristocracy?
A. Inequality
B. Human Error
C. Greed
D. Military Loss
21. What is the difference between instrumental goodness and intrinsic goodness?
A. Instrumental goodness is something that should be desired for its own sake, whereas
intrinsic goodness is only desirable for the sake of something else.
B. Instrumental goodness is something that is desirable for the sake of something else,
whereas intrinsic goodness is desirable for its own sake.
6. Which of the following is an inductive argument?
A. There are twelve gray swans. If you see twelve gray swans, you will see more gray swans.
You will see more gray swans.
B. I’ve seen one black swan. There being one black swan entails that not all swans are white.
Therefore not all swans are white.
C. I’ve seen fifty swans that can fly. Therefore all swans can fly.
7. A necessary condition for [X] is a condition which:
A. if it occurs guarantees that [X].
B.
if it occurs guarantees that not [X].
C. must occur in order that [X].
D. must occur in order that not [X].
8. A sufficient condition for [X] is a condition which
A must occur in order that [X].
B. must occur in order that not [X].
C. if it occurs guarantees that [X].
D. if it occurs guarantees that not [X].
9. Suppose that you are told that A is a necessary condition for B. “Only one of the following is a
counterexample to this. Which one?
A. A and B
B. A and not B
C. Band not A
D. Not A and not B
10. Suppose that you are told that A is a sufficient condition for B. Only one of the following is a
counterexample to this. Which one?
A. A and B
B. A and not B
C. Band not a
D.
Nota and not B
11. Thrasymachus claims that justice is what is in the interest of the stronger and that it requires
following the laws passed by the rulers. Socrates poses a dilemma for this conception of justice.
What produces the
dilemma?
A. Whether the stronger(the ruling class) can make mistakes.
B. Whether
people approve of this conception of justice.
C. Whether any societies actually are just
D. Whether people can live up to the standards set by this conception of justice.
12. Socrates claims that there are three forms of payment and that the incentive for the truly just
person to rule is the following:
A. Money
B. Honor
C. The absence of a penalty for refusing
D. Existential bliss and psychological pleasure
13. Socrates claims that there are three types of goodness, and that justice is of the following kind:
A. That which is good in the moment, but is of little long term significance.
B. That which is good in the moment, and is valuable in terms of its consequences.
C. That which is a pain in the moment, but is valuable in terms of its consequences.
14. Glaucon proposes The Ring of Gyges thought experiment in order to support the claim that:

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