Hi I have attached a short essay with an appendix.I want you to do it as an MLA style and check if there is any

Hi I have attached a short essay with an appendix.I want you to do it as an MLA style and check if there is any grammar or content errors and correct them please.


Suliman Alsanea, Cindy Ambrosi, Sevann Bignon, Kristin Liu, Tanimara Macari, Max
Menendez
Professor Ash
MKT 201 – Section H
25 February 2019
Marketing Research Paper
Marketing can be described as the activities of an organization that are concerned with
the buying and selling of products and services, and include advertisement and delivery of the
products and services to the customers. The primary objective of the marketing departments of
companies is to attract the target audiences to the products they are promoting, through striking
packaging design, media exposure, celebrity endorsements, and slogans. There are four P’s of
marketing: product, place, price, and promotion (Malhotra et al., 2006). In order for a company
to determine its marketing power, its four P’s of marketing must be stronger than those of the
competitors. For our marketing research project, we went to Publix, a well-established grocery
store chain in the United States, with stores in South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Virginia,
Alabama, and more. The products that we focused on for our project are milk, wine, and laundry
detergent. There are many milk brands at Publix; they have Borden, Organic Valley, Horizon,
Dairyland, Whole Foods Market, Dean Foods, and more. The brands had different prices and
packaging, with each trying to appeal to the customers. Milk has many customers because it is
both a healthy product and a staple food. Wine, on the other hand, is a good that is bought less
frequently. There is also a great variety of wine brands at the store, such as Berringer, Morgan
Metallico Chardonnay, A to Z Oregon Pinot Gris, M Signature Zinfandel and more. Similar to
the milk, the wine brands also vary in terms of price and bottling. For laundry detergent, Publix
has Tide, Gain, Tide Simply Clean and Fresh, Arm & Hammer, Purex and more. The difference
in price and packaging of the different brands of the three products is a marketing strategy by
each competitor to promote their products and appeal to customers.
Before we began the process of performing observational research by watching
customers at Publix choose their milk, wine, and laundry detergent, we came up with a
hypothesis of which decision-making factor would be more important when selecting each
product – cultural, social, personal, or psychological. Our hypothesis was that a person’s
economic situation, a personal factor, would have the most influence on their buying decisions
for milk, wine, and laundry detergent. Although customer buying decisions do get influenced by
family’s, friends’, and the public’s opinions, which are social factors, we thought that consumers
are most interested in saving as much money as possible, especially when a lower-priced product
will “do the job” as effectively as a pricier one. For the products milk and laundry detergent, we
conjectured that customers will exhibit more habitual buying behavior (since there is low
involvement and little significant brand difference), while for wine, customers will exhibit more
variety-seeking behavior (although there is still low involvement, there are more brand
differences between wine products). We also conjectured that for wine, customers will spend
more time on the evaluation of alternatives, which is a step in the buyer decision process,
because it is a product that is bought less frequently, so consumers will be less familiar with it.
Based on our customer behavior conjectures, we hypothesized that consumers will compare
several options, and as a result, take longer to decide on a wine product.
When we observed customers at Publix buying milk, we saw that they seemed to know
exactly what milk they wanted because it took them only about 20 seconds to get in and out of
the milk section. Two people said they like almond milk “silk” and when we asked them why,
one said it is because of the protein content, while the other said it is due to the fact that it is the
cheapest out of all the milks. Horizon was also a popular milk brand for customers, but for a
different reason. One family said that they have been getting that same milk for years and just
didn’t feel a need for change. One father came to buy milk and chose Maple Hill because that’s
what the kids wanted for cereal. The final person chose Lactaid because it was organic. Out of all
the people interviewed regarding milk, only one person made their decision because of pricing.
The milk brands are all very close to each other in prices, with prices ranging from $3 to $6, and
with most being around $4.50. As we interviewed customers, we noticed that people are not
really open to change when choosing milk.
For the product, wine, which is a shopping good bought less frequently, the six shoppers
we observed spent about 5 to 10 minutes to choose the wine they wanted to buy. Some were
looking around a bit, but for the most part, they seemed to know what they wanted and did not
bother to look through all the different wines that were available. Based on observation, shoppers
may make comparisons of some of the wines, but overall, they do not do an extensive
comparison where they analyze every wine sold at Publix. After we noted our observations, we
then asked them whether they compare several options before choosing a wine. Two said that
they do not because they already know their brand preferences, three said that they do not care
about the type or the brand, and one said that she compares the wines on a review site. When
asked about what influenced their decision-making, all of them said either taste, price, or both.
Four said taste is the most important factor, with two of those four saying price is next in
importance. The other two said price is the most important to them, with one of them saying that
although price is important, he will not compromise too much of the taste for a low price.
Lastly, we observed and interviewed people about their preferences while buying laundry
detergent. We observed that most of the buyers looking through laundry detergents were woman
and they seemed to know what they were looking for. The customers said that their choice of
laundry detergent mainly depended on price and family recommendations. The majority of our
interviewees go for the detergent with the most coupons, deals or promotions available. Our
younger interviewees are influenced by their mother’s suggestions and by the ease of use of Tide
Pods. In addition to price and family suggestions, people noted that they also tend to stick with the
laundry detergents that they normally buy. One of the consumers captured our attention when she
told us her most important decision-making factor. She would only choose the product which had
non-allergenic features and was eco-friendly, even if the packaging is not visually appealing and
the price is much higher. Overall, the customers we observed spent between 3 to 5 minutes
choosing the product.
Based on the marketing research conducted at Publix, we are able to draw several
conclusions about consumer buying behavior for perishable products such as milk, less frequently
bought products such as wine, and cleaning products such as laundry detergent. We hypothesized
that a person’s economic situation, which is a personal factor, would have the most influence on
their buying decisions for milk, wine, and laundry detergent. This hypothesis turned out to be
inaccurate for milk. Due to habitual buying behavior, people tend to stick to milk brands they trust
while disregarding price. To correct this, the hypothesis should have stated that brand loyalty is
the most important factor in decision making for milk. The hypothesis was somewhat accurate for
wine, as most consumers did care about the price, but taste was also an important factor influencing
buying behavior. Wine, unlike milk, is something that is not bought habitually, resulting in
consumers looking for variety, which makes taste important. Our hypothesis would be more
accurate by including the importance of quality, as this turned out to be equally as important as
price. Lastly, laundry detergent is, like milk, a regular purchase which buyers seem to resolve to
low prices as their primary factor, as long as they were satisfied. This is consistent with the
hypothesis that lower prices catch the consumers’ eyes over other factors. With regards to our
hypothesis that consumers will take longer to decide on wine, the results from the marketing
research showed this to be true. Consumers spent about 5 to 10 minutes looking for wine, while
for laundry detergent, consumers only spent 3 to 5 minutes, and for milk, only 20 seconds. Our
hypothesis that consumers will tend to compare several options for wine is somewhat accurate
because one customer said that she uses a review site for wines. As the customers only spent about
20 seconds at the milk section, it is apparent that they did not spend the time to compare several
milk options.
Appendix
Tables for Data Collection
Question 1: If you were to buy milk/ wine/ laundry detergent, which brand would you choose?
Question 2: Why would did you choose that specific brand of milk/ wine/ laundry detergent?





Like the images on carton, bottle, or container?
Like because of the quality, flavour, or specifics (lactose-free for example)?
Like for the price?
Like because an acquaintance told you about it?
Like because you saw it on tv, in an add, magazine/newspaper, or online?
MILK
Person
1
Person 2
Person 3
Person 4
Person 5
Person
6
Question
1
Lactaid
Horizon
Maple Hill
Silk
(almond
milk)
Silk
(almond
milk)
Horizon
Question
2
Organic
Cheap and
good
Like the taste
High in
protein
Cheap
Cheap
Used to
getting that
brand
WINE
Person
Person 2
1(female in (male)
40’s)
Like to drink it
on its own as
well
Person 3
Person 4
(female in (Max)
college)
Person 5
(female in
her 40s)
Person 6
(male in his
40s)
Question Person 1
1
said that
she rates
wines
online and
reads
reviews to
pick her
brands
No need to Compare
compare
types of
options b/c wine
he knows
his brands
and what he
likes
Does not
Does not
care about care about
type (likes the brand
both white
and red)
Spends no
more than 5
min. (wine
consumer for
more than 35
years)
Question Mainly
2
because
person 1
tried it
before and
knows what
he/she likes
Taste is the
most
important
factor,
price is
next
Price
first,
although
not too
cheap b/c
it will
taste bad
Looks at place
(S. America,
Spain, Italy,
etc.) and kind
of grape (he
likes
carmonera) ->
taste
LAUNDRY
DETERGENT
Person 1
Price is
important
(no more
than $10)
Person 2
Person 3
Type of
wine is
most
important,
then price
Person 4 Person
5
Person 6
Question 1
Brand = 7th Brand =
Generation Tide
Brand =
Gain
Brand =
Purex
Brand = Brand =
Tide
Whatever is
on sale, no
prefered brand
Question 2
Non
allergenic
Captures
attention
Parents
told them
to use it
Bio
Good
product
overall
Perfect
because
it’s
cheaper
Parents
told
them to
use it
They
have
many
sales and
coupons
Uses
pods
which
is easier
Free from
dangerous
chemicals
Affordable
Uses pods
Like the
scent
Captures
Attention
Likes when
there’s sales,
promotions,
coupons, and
buy one get
one free deals
References
Malhotra, N., Hall, J., Shaw, M., & Oppenheim, P. (2006). Marketing research: An applied
orientation. Pearson Education Australia.

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