(Reply to your classmates’ original posts with discussions that are on topic, clearly related to the thread, and further the discussion of the origina

(Reply to your classmates’ original posts with discussions that are on topic, clearly related to the thread, and further the discussion of the original comment.) Please reply to all 6 discussions individually!

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(1) Hello everyone!

So, I like this topic, skeletal and muscular systems

because it dives into the metabolic processes of muscle contractions. I have been dealing with an almost lifelong muscle cramp due to my partial scoliosis in my T-Spine. It is cool to learn about the tiny processes and functions of what is going on back there. I believe my muscle cramps are myogenic in nature. The way myogenic cramps/spasms occur is because of the disrupted energy production within the muscle cells. So, this basically means there is an ATP deficiency. With this ATP deficiency comes the fact that actin and myosin in the muscle fibers do not disengage so it remains contracted, sometimes quite painfully.  

Muscle Cramps. (n.d.). Practical Neurology. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from https://practicalneurology.com/articles/2019-aug-july/muscle-cramps


(2) Hello class,

I am confused with how does the glycogen-lactic acid system works with muscle metabolism. I get it our body converts glycogen to lactic acid for short-term energy but how does it affect on our muscle metabolism? I will be looking for your help to understand how these works. Thank you.




Muscle Metabolism BIOL250 Lesson 10.7 https://myclassroom.apus.edu/d2l/le/enhancedSequenceViewer/65145?url=https%3A%2F%2Ff54cbe36-23a9-4505-85fe-e251f80ec34d.sequences.api.brightspace.com%2F65145%2Factivity%2F7837274%3FfilterOnDatesAndDepth%3D1


(3)  https://myclassroom.apus.edu/content/enforced/65059-488897/Discussion%20Forums/Case%20Study%20Whooping%20Cough1.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=kTtxT2BwyHc0OAdqilfbZQevS


Part 2

2. Why is it difficult to grow Bordetella pertussis in a laboratory?

Bordetella is difficult to grow in a laboratory because it has a very small gram-negative rod, it’s a strict aerobe, and it only grows at temperature ranged from 35-37 degrees. On top of that Bordetella will not grow in ordinary laboratory media, it requires
media that it can be supplemented with charcoal, blood, potato.

6. What other respiratory illnesses mimic whooping cough?

What other respiratory illnesses mimic whooping cough?

There are multiple Illnesses that can mimic whooping cough such as Parapertussis is a disease that affects the lungs. Parapertussis is similar to (whooping cough) but is less severe. Influenzas is another illness based on bacteria affecting the viral and respiratory system.


Part 3


1. What is a vaccine?


 A vaccine is a biological substance designed to protect humans or animals from infections caused by bacteria and viruses. Vaccines are also called immunizations because they take advantage of our natural immune system’s ability to prevent infectious illness. Vaccines train your immune system to build antibodies, just as it does when it’s exposed to a disease. Vaccines are administrated through vaccination which is probably the most effective way of protecting you against harmful diseases, before you come into contact with them. It uses your body’s natural defenses to build resistance to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

4. What are some of the reasons why parents may refuse to have their children vaccinated?

Some parents refused to vaccinate kids based on religious reasons, safety concerns, person beliefs some parents even go as far as to believe that certain vaccines can cause autism among young kids. Personally, I think it is a lack of education of vaccines which makes some parents fear them.


(4) https://myclassroom.apus.edu/content/enforced/65059-488897/Discussion%20Forums/Case%20Study%20Whooping%20Cough1.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=kTtxT2BwyHc0OAdqilfbZQevS


Part 2


Q4: What is an antibiotic? Which class of antibiotics works best for Bordetella pertussis?

A: An antibiotic is a medicinal substance used against bacteria to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The class of antibiotics that work best against pertussis is Macrolides. The most common macrolides used are Azithromycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin.


Q6: What other respiratory illnesses mimic whooping cough?

A: There are a few upper respiratory infections that can mimic pertussis. Some of those include bronchitis, asthma, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and even parapertussis, similar but less severe.


Part 3


Q1: What is a vaccine?

A: A vaccine is typically an agent that mimics a disease-causing microorganism. It is made by using weakened or killed forms of bacteria. It can also be made by using its toxins or surface proteins.


Q4: What are some of the reasons why parents may refuse to have their children vaccinated?

A: Most parents are concerned about the uncertainty of the potential side effects of a certain vaccine. Also, there are quite a few families who believe that some side effects of vaccines can cause other health issues or disabilities. Parents may also believe that their children’s immune systems may not be strong enough to cope with any potential side effects. Lastly, some parents believe that unvaccinated children are healthier than vaccinated children due to personal beliefs and seeing vaccines as harmful. 


(5) Hi Davon,

I think it is very important to get most vaccinations, even though there can be side effects. For most vaccines the risk of the disease is much greater than the risk from side effects. Unfortunately, the vaccine-caused autism claim has been around for quite a while. Due to errors in the research, the original paper supporting the link of vaccines to autism has been retracted (see my introduction post for a link). Are there reliable scientific publications supporting the autism claim? What would you tell a parent concerned about autism and vaccines?

Dr. Stine



(6) Hello Davon,

Antibiotics have come a long way. I remember I was very sick once with an upper respiratory infection. I remember taking tons of over-the-counter medications but none seems to help. I have prescribed Azithromycin and within 24 hours I felt completely fine. It’s very important to catch symptoms as early as possible to prevent the spread of bacteria. Do you believe that parents are also afraid to have their children vaccinated because they are essentially injecting bacteria into them? Even though the bacteria are dead or weakened I have heard parents say that before. Personally, whenever I have children I will be doing the same thing as you and making sure they receive their vaccines at the right times.



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