SEU Adaptive Leadership Worksheet


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Adaptive leaders are follower-centered. The main objective of adaptive leaders is to help employees change and adjust to new circumstances in the organization (Northouse, 2022, p. 286). In the image below, we can see the Model of Adaptive Leadership (Northouse, 2022, p. 288):

Source: Northouse, P. G. (2022). Leadership: Theory and practice (8th ed., p. 288). Sage Publications.

Organization XYZ is a call center which helps clients solve issues with their internet connections. The organization opened 10 years ago and has 250 employees working in the facilities as customer service technicians 24 hours a day, seven days a week. After COVID-19, leadership has been rethinking the way that the organization conducts business. Therefore, it has been determined that all 250 employees would work remotely.

Think about what adaptive leadership is, the Model of Adaptive Leadership presented above, and the case, then address the following:

  1. Describe what the adaptive leader’s behavioral approach would be in this case.
  2. Explain the effectiveness of the adaptive leadership approach and how this leadership approach is similar to or different than your selected leadership style.

Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories (including supporting citations) along with at least two current, scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. You may find that your discussion of leadership characteristics is easily supported with such current scholarly research, while the information about how your chosen leader exhibits those leadership characteristics is supported by popular research.

Keep in mind that current scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search. Current research means published in the last five years.

Ninth Edition
To Madison, Isla, Sullivan, and Edison
Theory and Practice
Ninth Edition
Peter G. Northouse
Western Michigan University
Los Angeles
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SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Printed in Canada
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Northouse, Peter Guy, author.
Title: Leadership : theory and practice / Peter G. Northouse, Western Michigan University.
Description: Ninth Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publishing, 2021. | Revised edition of
the author’s Leadership, [2019] | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2020045038 | ISBN 9781544397566 (paperback) | ISBN
9781071836149 | 9781071834466 (epub) | ISBN 9781071834473 (epub) | ISBN
9781071834480 (pdf)
Subjects: LCSH: Leadership. | Leadership—Case studies.
Classification: LCC HM1261 .N67 2021 | DDC 303.3/4—dc23 LC record available at
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
21 22 23 24 25 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Maggie Stanley
Content Development Editor: Lauren Gobell
Editorial Assistant: Sarah Wilson
Production Editor: Tracy Buyan
Copy Editor: Melinda Masson
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Jennifer Grubba
Indexer: Integra
Cover Designer: Gail Buschman
Marketing Manager: Jennifer Jones
About the Author
About the Contributors
Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Trait Approach
Chapter 3 Skills Approach
Chapter 4 Behavioral Approach
Chapter 5 Situational Approach
Chapter 6 Path–Goal Theory
Chapter 7 Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Chapter 8 Transformational Leadership
Chapter 9 Authentic Leadership
Chapter 10 Servant Leadership
Chapter 11 Adaptive Leadership
Chapter 12 Inclusive Leadership
Chapter 13 Followership
Chapter 14 Gender and Leadership
Chapter 15 Leadership Ethics
Chapter 16 Team Leadership
Author Index
Subject Index
About the Author
About the Contributors
Chapter 1 Introduction
Leadership Defined
Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership
Definition and Components
Leadership Described
Trait Versus Process Leadership
Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership
Leadership and Power
Leadership and Coercion
Leadership and Morality
Leadership Is a Neutral Process
Leadership Is a Moral Process
Leadership and Management
Plan of the Book
Case Study
Case 1.1 Open Mouth . . .
Leadership Instrument
Conceptualizing Leadership Questionnaire
Chapter 2 Trait Approach
Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership
Strengths and Leadership
Emotional Intelligence
How Does the Trait Approach Work?
Case Studies
Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research
Case 2.2 Recruiting for the Bank
Case 2.3 Elon Musk
Leadership Instrument
Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ)
Chapter 3 Skills Approach
Three-Skill Approach
Technical Skills
Human Skills
Conceptual Skills
Summary of the Three-Skill Approach
Skills Model
Individual Attributes
Influences on Skills Development
Leadership Outcomes
Summary of the Skills Model
How Does the Skills Approach Work?
Case Studies
Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team
Case 3.2 Andy’s Recipe
Case 3.3 2019 Global Teacher of the Year: Peter Tabichi
Leadership Instrument
Skills Inventory
Chapter 4 Behavioral Approach
Task and Relationship Behaviors
Task Orientation
Relationship Orientation
Historical Background of the Behavioral Approach
The Ohio State Studies
The University of Michigan Studies
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid
Recent Studies
How Does the Behavioral Approach Work?
Case Studies
Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First
Case 4.2 We Are Family
Case 4.3 Cheer Coach Monica Aldama
Leadership Instrument
Leadership Behavior Questionnaire
Chapter 5 Situational Approach
Leadership Style
Development Level
How Does SLII® Work?
Case Studies
Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels
Case 5.2 Getting the Message Across
Case 5.3 Philosophies of Chinese Leadership
Leadership Instrument
SLII® Questionnaire: Sample Items
Chapter 6 Path–Goal Theory
Leader Behaviors
Directive Leadership
Supportive Leadership
Participative Leadership
Achievement-Oriented Leadership
Follower Characteristics
Task Characteristics
How Does Path–Goal Theory Work?
Case Studies
Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors
Case 6.2 Playing in the Orchestra
Case 6.3 Row the Boat
Leadership Instrument
Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire
Chapter 7 Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Early Studies
Later Studies
Leadership Development
Emotions and LMX Development
How Does LMX Theory Work?
Case Studies
Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments
Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair
Case 7.3 Pixar: Creating Space for Success
Leadership Instrument
LMX-7 Questionnaire
Chapter 8 Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership Defined
Transformational Leadership and Charisma
A Model of Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership Factors
Transactional Leadership Factors
Nonleadership Factor
Transformational Leadership Measurements
Other Transformational Perspectives
Bennis and Nanus
Kouzes and Posner
How Does the Transformational Leadership Approach Work?
Case Studies
Case 8.1 The Vision Failed
Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership
Case 8.3 Grandmothers and Benches
Leadership Instrument
Transformational Leadership Inventory
Chapter 9 Authentic Leadership
Authentic Leadership Defined
Approaches to Authentic Leadership
Practical Approach
Theoretical Approach
How Does Authentic Leadership Work?
Case Studies
Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader?
Case 9.2 Kassie’s Story
Case 9.3 The Arena of Authenticity
Leadership Instrument
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
Chapter 10 Servant Leadership
Servant Leadership Defined
Historical Basis of Servant Leadership
Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader
Building a Theory About Servant Leadership
Model of Servant Leadership
Antecedent Conditions
Servant Leader Behaviors
Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership
How Does Servant Leadership Work?
Case Studies
Case 10.1 Global Health Care
Case 10.2 Servant Leadership Takes Flight
Case 10.3 Energy to Inspire the World
Leadership Instrument
Servant Leadership Questionnaire
Chapter 11 Adaptive Leadership
Adaptive Leadership Defined
A Model of Adaptive Leadership
Situational Challenges
Technical Challenges
Technical and Adaptive Challenges
Adaptive Challenges
Leader Behaviors
Adaptive Work
How Does Adaptive Leadership Work?
Case Studies
Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and Mental Illness
Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus
Case 11.3 Agonizing Options for Marlboro College
Leadership Instrument
Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire
Chapter 12 Inclusive Leadership
Inclusion Defined
A Model of Inclusive Leadership
Antecedent Conditions
Leader Characteristics
Group Diversity Cognitions
Organizational Policies and Practices
Inclusive Leadership Behaviors
How Does Inclusive Leadership Work?
Case Studies
Case 12.1 Difficult Decision
Case 12.2 The Extraversion Advantage
Case 12.3 Inclusive Leadership During a Crisis
Leadership Instrument
Inclusive Leadership Reflection Instrument
Chapter 13 Followership
Followership Defined
Role-Based and Relational-Based Perspectives
Typologies of Followership
The Zaleznik Typology
The Kelley Typology
The Chaleff Typology
The Kellerman Typology
Theoretical Approaches to Followership
Reversing the Lens
The Leadership Co-Created Process
New Perspectives on Followership
Perspective 1: Followers Get the Job Done
Perspective 2: Followers Work in the Best Interest of
the Organization’s Mission
Perspective 3: Followers Challenge Leaders
Perspective 4: Followers Support the Leader
Perspective 5: Followers Learn From Leaders
Followership and Destructive Leaders
1. Our Need for Reassuring Authority Figures
2. Our Need for Security and Certainty
3. Our Need to Feel Chosen or Special
4. Our Need for Membership in the Human Community
5. Our Fear of Ostracism, Isolation, and Social Death
6. Our Fear of Powerlessness to Challenge a Bad
How Does Followership Work?
Case Studies
Case 13.1 Bluebird Care
Case 13.2 Olympic Rowers
Case 13.3 Penn State Sexual Abuse Scandal
Leadership Instrument
Followership Questionnaire
Chapter 14 Gender and Leadership
The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth
Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth
Understanding the Labyrinth
Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness
Navigating the Labyrinth
Case Studies
Case 14.1 The “Glass Ceiling”
Case 14.2 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status
Case 14.3 Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand
Leadership Instrument
Gender-Leader Bias Questionnaire
Chapter 15 Leadership Ethics
Ethics Defined
Level 1. Preconventional Morality
Level 2. Conventional Morality
Level 3. Postconventional Morality
Ethical Theories
Centrality of Ethics to Leadership
Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
The Dark Side of Leadership
Principles of Ethical Leadership
Ethical Leaders Respect Others
Ethical Leaders Serve Others
Ethical Leaders Are Just
Ethical Leaders Are Honest
Ethical Leaders Build Community
Case Studies
Case 15.1 Choosing a Research Assistant
Case 15.2 Reexamining a Proposal
Case 15.3 Ship Shape
Leadership Instrument
Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire (Short Form)
Chapter 16 Team Leadership
Team Leadership Model
Team Effectiveness
Leadership Decisions
Leadership Actions
How Does the Team Leadership Model Work?
Case Studies
Case 16.1 Team Crisis Within the Gates
Case 16.2 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper
Case 16.3 1980 U.S. Olympic Hockey Team
Leadership Instrument
Team Excellence and Collaborative Team Leader
Author Index
Subject Index
As this ninth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice goes to press, the
number of confirmed deaths worldwide from the COVID-19 pandemic is
over 1 million. The horrific nature of this pandemic has challenged societies
on a global scale and highlights for all of us the importance of
understanding how leadership works and the value of leadership in times of
crisis. To that end, this edition is written with the objective of bridging the
gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches to leadership and the
more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous editions, this edition
reviews and analyzes a selected number of leadership theories, giving
special attention to how each theoretical approach can be applied in realworld organizations. In essence, my purpose is to explore how leadership
theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.
First and foremost, this edition includes a new chapter on inclusive
leadership, which examines the nature of inclusive leadership, its
underpinnings, and how it functions. Authored by two scholars in the areas
of diversity and inclusion, Donna Chrobot-Mason and Quinetta Roberson,
the chapter presents definitions, a model, and the latest research and
applications of this emerging approach to leadership. Underscored in the
chapter is how inclusion is an integration of two factors: (1) an individual’s
connectedness to others and (2) a person’s uniqueness. Finally, this new
chapter provides case studies and leadership instruments to explore how to
practice inclusive leadership in a variety of contexts.
In addition to the discussion of inclusive leadership in Chapter 12, this
edition includes an expanded analysis of leadership and morality—the
“Hitler Question.” It discusses the perplexing question of whether the
process of leadership is inherently a moral process that is concerned with
the common good or whether it is a neutral process that is not dependent on
promoting the common good.
Another new feature in this edition is the inclusion of a real-world case
study in each chapter. Because it is important to acknowledge and see real
leaders exhibiting the behaviors and concepts behind the leadership
approaches discussed in the text, the third case study in each chapter
profiles a leader that epitomizes the chapter’s concepts. These new realworld case studies include profiles from across the globe including a mental
health program utilizing grandmothers in Africa, an Italian energy
company, and New Zealand prime minister Jacinda Ardern. In addition,
there are profiles of leaders responding to crisis including closing a college
and battling COVID-19 on a U.S. aircraft carrier.
This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has
been updated to include new research findings, figures and tables, and
everyday applications for many leadership topics including leader–member
exchange theory, transformational and authentic leadership, team
leadership, the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical definitions of
leadership. In addition, it includes an expanded look at the relationship
between emotional intelligence and leadership. The format of this edition
parallels the format used in earlier editions. As with previous editions, the
overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is to advance our
understanding of the many different approaches to leadership and ways to
practice it more effectively.
Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership
research, every attempt has been made to present the material in a clear,
concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers of the book have consistently
commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In addition to the
writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.
Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first
theory and then practice.
Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of
the approach under consideration, and assists readers in determining
the relative merits of each approach.
Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the
practical aspects of the approach and how it could be used in today’s
organizational settings.
Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common
leadership issues and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow
each case study, helping readers to interpret the case.
A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help readers
apply the approach to their own leadership style or setting.
Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the
ideas more meaningful.
Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text
substantive, understandable, and practical.
This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and a
discussion of how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for
undergraduate and graduate classes in management, leadership studies,
business, educational leadership, public administration, nursing and allied
health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and organizational
psychology, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and
military science, and training and development. It can also be utilized
outside of academia by small and large companies, as well as federal
government agencies, to aid in developing the learner’s leadership skills. It
is particularly well suited as a supplementary text for core organizational
behavior courses or as an overview text within MBA curricula. This book
would also be useful as a text in student activities, continuing education, inservice training, and other leadership-development programs.
This text includes an array of instructor teaching materials designed to save
you time and to help you keep students engaged. To learn more, visit or contact your SAGE representative at
In the electronic edition of the book you have purchased, there are
several icons that reference links (videos, journal articles) to
additional content. Though the electronic edition links are not live,
all content referenced may be accessed at . This URL is referenced
at several points throughout your electronic edition.
Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the
ninth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to
acknowledge my editor, Maggie Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE
Publications (Lauren Gobell and Sarah Wilson), who have contributed in so
many different ways to the quality and success of this book. For their very
capable work during the production phase, I would like to thank the copy
editor, Melinda Masson, and the project editor, Tracy Buyan. In her own
unique way, each of these people made valuable contributions to the ninth
I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable
contributions to the development of this manuscript:
Sidney R. Castle, National University
Jason Headrick, Texas Tech University
Michelle Jefferson, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Gary F. Kohut, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte
R. Jeffery Maxfield, Utah Valley University
Daniel F. Nehring, Morehead State University
Michael Pace, Texas A&M University
Heather I. Scott, Kennesaw State University
Charlotte Silvers, Texas Tech University
Elena Svetieva, University of Colorado Colorado Springs
Mark Vrooman, Utica College
Isaac Wanasika, University of Northern Colorado
Rosie Watwood, Concordia University Texas
I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable
contributions to the development of the eighth-edition manuscript:
Sandra Arumugam-Osburn, St. Louis Community College–Forest Park
Rob Elkington, University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Abimbola Farinde, Columbia Southern University
Belinda S. Han, Utah Valley University
Deborah A. Johnson-Blake, Liberty University
Benjamin Kutsyuruba, Queen’s University
Chenwei Liao, Michigan State University
Heather J. Mashburn, Appalachian State University
Comfort Okpala, North Carolina A&T State University
Ric Rohm, Southeastern University
Patricia Dillon Sobczak, Virginia Commonwealth University
Victor S. Sohmen, Drexel University
Brigitte Steinheider, University of Oklahoma-Tulsa
Robert Waris, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Sandi Zeljko, Lake-Sumter State College
Mary Zonsius, Rush University
I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable
contributions to the development of the seventh-edition manuscript:
Hamid Akbari, Winona State University
Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville
Mel Albin, Excelsior College
Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University
Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University
Julie Bjorkman, Benedictine University
Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University
Dianne Burns, University of Manchester
Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University
Steven Bryant, Drury University
Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University
David Conrad, Augsburg College
Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing
S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University
Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama
Brad Gatlin, John Brown University
Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University
Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine
Decker B. Hains, Western Michigan University
Amanda Hasty, University of Colorado–Denver
Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University
Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University
Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville
Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College
Jeanea M. Lambeth, Pittsburg State University
David Lees, University of Derby
David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Carol McMillan, New School University
Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University
Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe
Keeok Park, University of La Verne
Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth
Lori M. Pindar, Clemson University
Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque
Casey Rae, George Fox University
Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology
Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge
Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs)
Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University
Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
David Swenson, The College of St. Scholastica
Danny L. Talbot, Washington State University
Robert L. Taylor, University of Louisville
Precious Taylor-Clifton, Cambridge College
John Tummons, University of Missouri
Kristi Tyran, Western Washington University
Tamara Von George, Granite State College
Natalie Walker, Seminole State College
William Welch, Bowie State University
David E. Williams, Texas Tech University
Tony Wohlers, Cameron University
Sharon A. Wulf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute School of Business
Alec Zama, Grand View University
Xia Zhao, California State University, Dominguez Hills
In addition, I would like to thank, for their exceptional work on the
leadership profile tool and the ancillaries, Isolde Anderson (Hope College),
John Baker (Western Kentucky University), and Eric Buschlen.
A very special acknowledgment goes to Laurel Northouse who has been my
number-one critic and supporter from the inception of the book in 1990 to
the present. In addition, I am especially grateful to Marie Lee for her
exceptional editing and guidance throughout this project. For her
comprehensive literature reviews and chapter updates, I would like to thank
Terri Scandura.
For his review of and comments on the morality and leadership section, I
am indebted to Joseph Curtin (Northeastern University). I would like to
thank Kate McCain (University of Nebraska–Lincoln) and Jason Headrick
(University of Nebraska–Lincoln) for their contributions to the adaptive
leadership chapter, John Baker for his contributions to the team leadership
chapter, Jenny Steiner for her case study on adaptive leadership, Jeff Brink
for sharing his story about transformational leadership, and Kassandra
Gutierrez for her case study on authentic leadership. In addition, I would
like to acknowledge Barbara Russell (Chemeketa Community College) for
her research and writing of many of the new real-world case studies.
Finally, I would like to thank the many undergraduate and graduate students
whom I have taught through the years. Their ongoing feedback has helped
clarify my thinking about leadership and encouraged me to make plain the
practical implications of leadership theories.
Peter G. Northouse,
PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Communication in the School of Communication at
Western Michigan University. Leadership: Theory and Practice is the best-selling
academic textbook on leadership in the world and has been translated into 16 languages.
In addition to authoring publications in professional journals, he is the author of
Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice (now in its fifth edition) and coauthor of Leadership Case Studies in Education (now in its third edition) and Health
Communication: Strategies for Health Professionals (now in its third edition). His
scholarly and curricular interests include models of leadership, leadership assessment,
ethical leadership, and leadership and group dynamics. For more than 30 years, he has
taught undergraduate and graduate courses in leadership, interpersonal communication,
and organizational communication on both the undergraduate and graduate levels.
Currently, he is a consultant and lecturer on trends in leadership research, leadership
development, and leadership education. He holds a doctorate in speech communication
from the University of Denver, and master’s and bachelor’s degrees in communication
education from Michigan State University.
Donna Chrobot-Mason,
PhD, is an associate professor and director of the Center for Organizational
Leadership at the University of Cincinnati (UC). She is director of UC
Women Lead, a 10-month executive leadership program for high-potential
women at UC. Her research and consulting work has spanned two decades
and centers on leadership across differences and strategies for creating
organizations that support diversity, equity, and inclusion and foster
intergroup collaboration. She has published nearly 40 articles and scholarly
works in journals such as the Journal of Management, The Leadership
Quarterly, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Group and
Organization Management. She has served on the editorial review board for
the Journal of Management, Personnel Psychology, and the Journal of
Business and Psychology. Her book (co-authored with Chris Ernst),
Boundary Spanning Leadership: Six Practices for Solving Problems,
Driving Innovation, and Transforming Organizations, was published by
McGraw-Hill Professional in 2010. Dr. Chrobot-Mason has been invited to
address numerous audiences including the Brookings Institute, Federal
Bureau of Investigation, Environmental Protection Agency, Internal
Revenue Service, Catholic Health Partners, and the International
Leadership Association. She has consulted with numerous organizations
including Briggs and Stratton, Dayton Public Schools, BoehringerIngelheim, Emory University, Milacron, and Forest City Enterprises. She
holds a PhD and master’s degree in applied psychology from the University
of Georgia.
Crystal L. Hoyt
is a professor and associate dean for academic affairs, and holds the
Thorsness Endowed Chair in Ethical Leadership at the Jepson School of
Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond. Her research explores
the role of belief systems, such as mindsets, self-efficacy, stereotypes, and
political ideologies, in a range of social issues including stigma and
discrimination, ethical failures in leadership, leadership and educational
achievement gaps, public health, and wealth inequality. Dr. Hoyt’s research
appears in journals such as Psychological Science, Journal of Experimental
and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Group
Processes & Intergroup Relations, and The Leadership Quarterly. She has
published over 70 journal articles and book chapters and has co-edited three
books. Dr. Hoyt is an associate editor at the Journal of Experimental
Psychology: General, is on the editorial boards at Leadership Quarterly and
Sex Roles, and has served as a reviewer for over 45 journals.
Susan E. Kogler Hill
(PhD, University of Denver, 1974) is Professor Emeritus and former chair
of the School of Communication at Cleveland State University. Her
research and consulting have been in the areas of interpersonal and
organizational communication. She specializes in group leadership,
teamwork, empowerment, and mentoring. She is author of a text titled
Improving Interpersonal Competence. In addition, she has written book
chapters and published articles in many professional journals.
Quinetta Roberson,
PhD, is the John A. Hannah Distinguished Professor of Management and
Psychology at Michigan State University. Prior to her current position, she
was an Endowed Chair at Villanova University and a tenured professor at
Cornell University. She has been a visiting scholar at universities on six
continents and has more than 20 years of global experience in teaching
courses, facilitating workshops, and advising organizations on diversity and
inclusion, leadership, and talent management. Dr. Roberson has published
over 40 scholarly journal articles and book chapters and edited a Handbook
of Diversity in the Workplace (2013). Her research and consulting work
focus on developing organizational capability and enhancing effectiveness
through the strategic management of people, particularly diverse work
teams, and is informed by her background in finance, having worked as a
financial analyst and small business development consultant prior to
obtaining her doctorate. She earned her PhD in organizational behavior
from the University of Maryland and holds undergraduate and graduate
degrees in finance.
Stefanie Simon
is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Siena College.
She earned her PhD in social psychology from Tulane University and was
the Robert A. Oden Jr. Postdoctoral Fellow for Innovation in the Liberal
Arts at Carleton College before joining the faculty at Siena. Her research
centers on the psychology of diversity, with a focus on prejudice,
discrimination, and leadership. In her work, she focuses on the perspective
of the target of prejudice and discrimination, as well as the perspective of
the perpetrator of prejudice and discrimination. She is particularly
interested in how leaders of diverse groups can promote positive intergroup
relations and reduce inequality in society. She has published articles in
various psychology and leadership journals including The Leadership
Quarterly, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Social Psychological
and Personality Science, and Sex Roles.
Leadership is a highly sought-after and highly valued commodity. In the 25 years since the first edition of this
book was published, the public has become increasingly captivated by the idea of leadership. People continue to
ask themselves and others what makes good leaders. As individuals, they seek more information on how to
become effective leaders. As a result, bookstore shelves are filled with popular books about leaders and how to be
a leader. Many people believe that leadership is a way to improve their personal, social, and professional lives.
Corporations seek those with leadership ability because they believe these individuals bring special assets to their
organizations and, ultimately, improve the bottom line. Academic institutions throughout the country have
responded by offering programs in leadership studies, including at the master’s and doctoral levels.
In addition, leadership has gained the attention of researchers worldwide. Leadership research is increasing
dramatically, and findings underscore that there is a wide variety of different theoretical approaches to explain the
complexities of the leadership process (e.g., Bass, 2008; Bryman, 1992; Bryman, Collinson, Grint, Jackson, &
Uhl-Bien, 2011; Day & Antonakis, 2012; Dinh et al., 2014; J. Gardner, 1990; W. Gardner et al., 2020; Hickman,
2016; Mumford, 2006; Rost, 1991). Some researchers conceptualize leadership as a trait or as a behavior, whereas
others view leadership from an information-processing perspective or relational standpoint.
Leadership has been studied using both qualitative and quantitative methods in many contexts, including small
groups, therapeutic groups, and large organizations. In recent years, this research has included experiments
designed to explain how leadership influences follower attitudes and performance (Podsakoff & Podsakoff, 2019)
in hopes of increasing the practical usefulness of leadership research.
Collectively, the research findings on leadership provide a picture of a process that is far more sophisticated and
complex than t


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