CS 613 SEU Defending Against Spyware Cyber Security Paper

Description

Defending Against Spyware (60 Points)

Why is it important to be proactive in order to defend against Spyware at your home and work? Discuss the benefits to this type of defense. Also discuss the implications involved by not implementing this type of defense.


Network Defense and
Countermeasures
by Chuck Easttom
Chapter 10: Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
Objectives





Describe Trojan horses
Take steps to prevent Trojan horse attacks
Describe spyware
Use antispyware software
Create antispyware policies
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Introduction
Though not as common as viruses, Trojan
horses still pose a real threat to computer
systems. Spyware and adware continue to
grow and clutter computer networks and
individual computers. This chapter provides
ways to combat these particular types of
threats.
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Trojan Horses

Typical actions Trojan horses take:





Delete files from a computer
Spread other malware
Use the computer to launch a DDoS
Search for personal information
Install “back door” to the computer
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Some Notorious Trojan Horses







Back Orifice
Anti-Spyware 2011
Sheldun
Brain Test
FinFisher
NetBus
FlashBack
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Spyware, and Adware



GameOver Zeus
Linux Trojan Horses
Portal of Doom
Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses,
5
Back Orifice





Allows control over TCP/IP
Entirely self-installing
Can be attached to legitimate applications
Does not appear in the task list
Registry is the best way to remove
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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NetBus





Similar to Back Orifice
Only works on port 20034
Simple to check infection
Removal through the registry
Easy-to-use GUI
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Linux Trojan Horses


These Trojan horses are not new
One released in 1999



Typical back door Trojan horse
Uploaded to at least one FTP server
Not known how many systems were compromised
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Portal of Doom

Back door tool allows remote users to
perform the following:







Open and close the CD tray
Shut down the system
Open files or programs
Access drives
Change passwords
Log keystrokes
Take screenshots
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Symptoms of a Trojan Horse





Home page for your browser changes
Any change to passwords, usernames,
accounts, and so on
Any change to screen savers
Changes to mouse settings, backgrounds,
and such
Any device seeming to work on its own, such
as a CD door
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
10
Preventing Trojan Horses:
Technological Measures




Block unneeded ports (e.g. 20034)
Utilize antivirus software (most check for
Trojan horses)
Prevent active code in browsers
Limit user’s rights to just what is needed
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Preventing Trojan Horses:
Policy Measures





Never download any attachments unless
absolutely certain they are safe or expected
If a port is not needed, close it
Do not download browser skins, toolbars,
screen savers, or animations
Ask your IT department to scan any needed
downloads before use
Be cautious of hidden file extensions
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Trojan Horse and Associated Port(s)
Table 10.1 Ports used by well-known Trojan horses
Port(s) Used
Trojan Horse
57341
NetRaider
54320
Back Orifice 2000
37651
Yet Another Trojan (YAT)
33270
Trinity
31337 and 31338
Back Orifice
12624
Buttman
9872-9872, 3700
Portal of Doom (POD)
7300-7308
Net Monitor
2583
WinCrash
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Spyware and Adware




Becoming more and more intrusive
Can cause systems to crash
Made to gather information and send it to
third parties
Generates pop-ups not detected by pop-up
blockers
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Spyware and Adware Examples

Gator (Adware)

Two methods of removal



Add/remove programs
The registry
RedSheriff (Spyware)

Twofold problem:


No one is certain what data is collected (except
manufacturer)
Many people have a negative reaction to website
monitoring
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Antispyware Applications

Two popular applications



Spy Sweeper (www.webroot.com)
Zero Spyware
Research and compare products online



PCMag Best Anti-spyware of 2018
IEEE Comparing Anti-Spyware Products
Digital Trends Best Free Antivirus
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Antispyware Policies




Never download any attachments you are not
certain are safe
Configure browser to block cookies, or at
least third-party cookies
Configure browser to block scripts that run
without user awareness
Utilize browser pop-up blockers
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Anti-Spyware Policies cont.

Never download the following if you are
uncertain of their safety:





Applications
Browser skins
Screen savers
Utilities
Block Java applets, or require manual
approval of such
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Summary



Both Trojan horses and spyware pose
significant dangers
Virus scanners and appropriate policies are
your only protection against Trojan horses
and spyware
Carefully develop and implement anti-Trojan
horse policies
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Summary




Spyware and adware are growing problems
for networks
Spyware can compromise security
Confidential information can be compromised
by spyware
Adware is more of a nuisance than a real
security threat

However, there is a threshold of adware that can
make a system unusable
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Summary



There are numerous utilities that can help
protect against Trojan horses (antivirus
software)
Available utilities can protect against spyware
and adware
Policies can work with utilities to further
protect systems
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Chapter 10 Defending Against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware
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Network Defense and
Countermeasures
Principles and Practices
Third Edition
Chuck Easttom
800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA
Network Defense and Countermeasures
Editor-in-Chief
Mark Taub
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Contents at a Glance
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
1
Introduction to Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2
Types of Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3
Fundamentals of Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4
Firewall Practical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5
Intrusion-Detection Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
6
Encryption Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
7
Virtual Private Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
8
Operating System Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
9
Defending Against Virus Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
10 Defending against Trojan Horses, Spyware, and Adware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
11 Security Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
12 Assessing System Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
13 Security Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
14 Physical Security and Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
15 Techniques Used by Attackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
16 Introduction to Forensics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
17 Cyber Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Appendix A: Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
iii
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to Network Security
2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
The Basics of a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Basic Network Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Data Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Uniform Resource Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Basic Network Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
ipconfig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
tracert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
netstat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
The OSI Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
What Does This Mean for Security? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Assessing Likely Threats to the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Classifications of Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Malware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Compromising System Security—Intrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Denial of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Likely Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Threat Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Understanding Security Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Hacking Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Security Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Choosing a Network Security Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Perimeter Security Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
iv
Table of Contents
Layered Security Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Hybrid Security Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Network Security and the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Using Security Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Chapter 2: Types of Attacks
40
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Understanding Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
DoS in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
SYN Flood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Smurf Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Ping of Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
UDP Flood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
ICMP Flood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
DHCP Starvation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
HTTP Post DoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
PDoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Distributed Reflection Denial of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
DoS Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Real-World Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Defending Against DoS Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Defending Against Buffer Overflow Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Defending Against IP Spoofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Defending Against Session Hijacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Blocking Virus and Trojan Horse Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Types of Viruses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Trojan Horses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table of Contents
v
Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Firewalls
76
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
What Is a Firewall? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Types of Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Packet Filtering Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Stateful Packet Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Application Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Circuit Level Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Hybrid Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Blacklisting/Whitelisting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Implementing Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Host-Based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Dual-Homed Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Router-Based Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Screened Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Selecting and Using a Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Using a Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Using Proxy Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
The WinGate Proxy Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Chapter 4: Firewall Practical Applications
100
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Using Single Machine Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Windows 10 Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
User Account Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
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Linux Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Iptables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Symantec Norton Firewall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
McAfee Personal Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Using Small Office/Home Office Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
SonicWALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
D-Link DFL-2560 Office Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Using Medium-Sized Network Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Check Point Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Cisco Next-Generation Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Using Enterprise Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Chapter 5: Intrusion-Detection Systems
122
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Understanding IDS Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Preemptive Blocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Anomaly Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
IDS Components and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Understanding and Implementing IDSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Snort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Cisco Intrusion-Detection and Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Understanding and Implementing Honeypots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Specter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Symantec Decoy Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Intrusion Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Intrusion Deterrence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Table of Contents
vii
Chapter 6: Encryption Fundamentals
140
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
The History of Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
The Caesar Cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
ROT 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Atbash Cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Multi-Alphabet Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Rail Fence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Vigenère . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Enigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Binary Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Learning About Modern Encryption Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Symmetric Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Key Stretching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
PRNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Public Key Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Digital Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Identifying Good Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Understanding Digital Signatures and Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Digital Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
PGP Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
MD5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
SHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
RIPEMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
HAVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Understanding and Using Decryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Cracking Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
John the Ripper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Using Rainbow Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
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Table of Contents
Using Other Password Crackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
General Cryptanalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Steganography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Steganalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Quantum Computing and Quantum Cryptography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Chapter 7: Virtual Private Networks
176
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Basic VPN Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Using VPN Protocols for VPN Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
PPTP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
PPTP Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
L2TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
L2TP Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
L2TP Compared to PPTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
IPSec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
SSL/TLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Implementing VPN Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Cisco Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Service Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Openswan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Other Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Chapter 8: Operating System Hardening
202
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Configuring Windows Properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Accounts, Users, Groups, and Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Setting Security Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Registry Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Table of Contents
ix
Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Encrypting File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Security Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Configuring Linux Properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Patching the Operating System . . . . . . . . .

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