• Nature of a revolution.
• Definition of modern multimedia.
– Forms of multimedia.
• Origins of multimedia.
• Visionaries of multimedia.
• Potential of digital media.
Contemporary Multimedia is the development,
integration, and delivery of any combination of
text, graphics, animation, sound or video
through a digital processing device.
FORMS OF MULTIMEDIA
– User is a observer of information.
– User is a participant in the flow of information.
FORMS OF MULTIMEDIA
– User has no control over the flow of information.
– Developer establishes the sequence of media
elements and how they are presented.
– Examples include:
• Information kiosks
• Digital animations.
• Basic interactivity
– Includes menu and button options to access
• Adaptive or Intellimedia
– Adapt the information flow to the needs or
interests of the users.
– Draws users into an alternate world.
FROM ANALOG TO DIGITAL:
VISIONS OF THE FUTURE.
VANNEVAR BUSH (1890 – 1974)
A hypothetical machine to make the work
of scientists more effective and efficient in
grasping the “growing mountain of
research.” (As We May Think, 1945)
MEMEX I — FEATURES
• Massive storage capacity.
• Multimedia input devices such as “vocoder”
and “cyclops camera.”
• Automatic mathematical calculations and
• New method to store and access information
• Extended the original proposals of Memex I by
considering new technical developments such
– Magnetic tape
– Digital computer.
MEMEX II — FEATURES
• Professionally maintained associational
databases delivered by tape or facsimile.
• Trails would be color-coded to reflect age and
reinforced by repetitive use.
• Combined with a digital computer, Bush
believed the Memex II could learn from
experience and even demonstrate a form of
ALAN TURING (1912-1954)
• Proposed an abstract machine known as the
– The “machine” was a means of defining an
– The imaginary device had three components:
• An infinitely long tape consisting of single row of
• A read/write head that moved along the tape one
square at a time
• A set of instructions.
• Single Purpose “Turing Machine.”
Can carry out a specific set of instructions or
• “Universal Turing Machine” (UTM).
– Can accept a description of a single purpose
machine and imitate it’s behavior.
– Implication of the UTM:
If we can think of a way to do something, the
computer can do it.
• Proposed practical applications of computers
beyond the normal mathematical and sorting
• Developed innovations for human-computer
interactivity in the NLS (oNLineSystem). These
– Multiple screen areas for text editing
• Coined terms hypertext and hypermedia.
– Hypertext: interactive text linked to other textual
– Hypermedia: extends interactive linking to other
• Initiated Xanadu Project:
– A dynamic, expanding, hypertext library available
– Supported collaborative editing, tracking changes,
crediting, and rewarding contributors.
• Proposed a computer design that supported
the ways people perceive, learn, and create.
• Dynabook: designed as a personal computer.
– Tied to the mind and interests of the user.
– A “modeless” multimedia computer.
• Users could move between graphics, sound, text,
• Introduced Graphical User Interface (GUI) as
an intuitive interface for the Dynabook.
STEVE JOBS (1955-2011)
• Founded Apple in 1976 with Steve Wozniak.
• Macintosh computer introduced in 1984.
– Graphical desktop and Icons provide user
– First mass produced computer with built in sound
– Multimedia computing became the standard for
• Developed a decentralized information system
of “nodes” linked together for easy access
across a network.
– Nodes could be any form of media.
– Anyone could add nodes.
– No centralized control over servers, documents or
WORLD WIDE WEB
• Basic components of WWW:
– Server computer
– Client computer
– Browser software
– HTML scripting language.
WWW & MULTIMEDIA COMPUTING
• Solved cross-platform compatibility problem.
• Supported distribution of media beyond the
capacity of CD-ROM storage.
• Allowed instant distribution and inexpensive
• First Generation
– Alan Turing
– Vannevar Bush
• Second Generation
• Next Generation
– Current innovators of multimedia
THE REVOLUTION CONTINUES
• Factors influencing the revolution:
– Technical breakthroughs in hardware and software.
– Integration of computers with other devices.
– Digital merger of disparate technologies and
– Further development of wireless communications &
– Expansion of creative opportunity.
• Definition of contemporary multimedia.
• Expressions of multimedia.
• Visionaries who contributed to development
of digital multimedia.
• Potential of digital media.
• The analog-to-digital revolution.
KEY TERM CHECK UP
Elements of digital media.
Compression for digital media.
Advantages of digital media.
Challenges of digital media.
CODING DIGITAL INFORMATION
• Symbols represent something else.
– Organized and understood by a conventional
• Data are the givens of experience.
– Measurements, facts, observations.
• Information is data made useful, interpreted,
and applied to produce understanding.
YOU DECIDE: data or information?
People who are 30 years old, pay $30
to run 30 miles in 30 degree weather for
a charity benefit.
Age = 30 yrs.
Temperature = 30 degrees
Distance = 30 mi.
Cost = $30
ANALOG vs. DIGITAL DATA
• Analog data varies continuously.
• Digital data consists of separate, discrete
Wind mill motion.
Hour glass to tell time.
1, 2, 3, 4
YOU DECIDE: Analog or Digital Data?
Digit = number.
Binary digit (bit) = 0 or 1.
Bits are the symbols to encode digital data.
Digital encoding assigns bits to data items.
More bits in the code, means more distinct items to encode.
BUILDING DIGITAL CODES
• Number of distinct bit combinations that can be
produced is given by the formula 2
– n = number of bits used in the code.
• Adding 1 to the power doubles the number of
distinct data items that can be encoded.
Complete the table to identify the number of distinct items
represented by 2 5, 2 6, 2 7, and 2 8.
• ASCII, a 7 bit code.
– 128 letters, numbers, and symbols in English language.
• ASCII-8, an 8 bit code.
– 256 letters, numbers, and symbols in English language.
• Unicode, a 16 bit code.
– Over 65,000 different characters.
• 24-bit color.
– Displays the full range a human eye can perceive.
• 16-bit sound.
– Plays the full decibel range the human ear can perceive.
• A container for binary codes.
• File formats define how instructions and data
are encoded in the file.
– Sample formats that define data differently:
• Word file format
• Acrobat file format
• Media player file format.
ALL ABOUT FILES
• File size
– Measured in units of bytes.
• Kilo Bytes, Mega Bytes, Giga Bytes.
• File extensions
– Series of letters to designate the file format.
• .fla, .exe, .rtf, .jpg
• File compatibility
– Ability to use the file in a different platform of
hardware and software.
• Program files
– Contain executable instructions.
• Data files
– Can hold text, images, sounds, video, animation.
DATA FILE COMPATIBILITY
• Cross-platform compatible files.
– Open and use on any computer hardware and
• Files that are native or specialized to the
application that created the data file.
– Require source application to open the file.
• Data loss and destruction impacts multimedia
• Effective file maintenance involves:
ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION.
SAMPLING ANALOG DATA
Sampling analyzes a small portion of the analog
source and converts it to digital code.
• Factors that influence sample quality
– Sample Resolution.
• Number of bits used to represent digital sample.
• Quantization is process of rounding off the value of a
sample to the nearest available digital code.
– Sample Rate.
• Number of samples taken in a given unit of time
(sounds) or space (images).
• Spatial resolution describes sample rate in image files.
YOU DECIDE … sample resolution
Which image and sound sample will have better quality?
8 bits / sample
8 bits / sample
24 bits / sample
16 bits / sample
Which image uses fewer bits to describe the color sample?
YOU DECIDE … sample rate
Which image and sound sample will have better quality? Why?
72 pixels / inch
300 pixels / inch
Which image has higher spatial resolution?
• Description-based encoding
– A detailed representation of the discrete elements
that comprise the media.
• Command-based encoding
– A set of instructions the computer follows to
produce the digital media.
MEDIA ENCODING COMPARED
Represent natural scenes and
File sizes are small.
Supports detailed editing.
Large file sizes.
Lose quality if enlarged.
Scaled without distortion.
Not appropriate for detailed photographs
and natural sounds.
Requires knowledge of music and vector
• Process of re-encoding digital data to reduce
• Codec: a program to compress a file into a
smaller size and decompress it into a usable
MAJOR TYPES OF COMPRESSION
– Number of bits is reduced and some data is lost.
– Lossy strategies include MP3 and JPEG
– Efficient encoding reduces file size without loss of
– Lossless strategies include RLE and GIF
YOU DECIDE… Lossy or Lossless
Choose a compression strategy best suited for:
1. Photograph of sailboat on ocean.
2. Journal article explaining nanotechnology.
3. 1812 Overture by New York Philharmonic
4. Database of student names and addresses.
5. Video of hot air balloon flying over a cornfield.
ERROR DETECTION &
• Digital bits may be lost during transmission or
damaged on storage media.
– CDs get scratched.
– Communication lines have interference.
• Strategies to preserve data vary.
– Parity bits help detect an error during
– CDs include redundant data to replace data when
an error occurs.
DIGITAL INFORMATION —
• Reproduction without generation decay.
• Editing and re-editing much easier than with
• Integration of media using cut, copy, paste
• Distribution over Internet – nearly everyone can
be reached by anyone else.
DIGITAL INFORMATION —
• File sizes are large.
• Digital media is processor intensive.
• Absence of media standards renders data files
• Some media requires high bandwidth to
distribute on networks.
• Concern for longevity and future accessibility
of digital data.
• Analog vs. Digital data.
Symbols and binary code.
Data vs. Information.
Files as containers.
Description- vs. Command-based media.
Error detection & correction.
Advantages & Challenges of digital data.
KEY TERM CHECK UP
File conve rsion
Generat ion decay
Native file format
Components of a Computer System
Types of Computer Systems
– System Unit
– Peripheral Devices
– WAN and LAN
• An integrated set of hardware and
software designed to process data and
produce a meaningful result.
• Basic functions:
TYPES OF COMPUTER
– Offers the fastest processing speeds and
performs the most complex calculations.
• Mainframe computer.
– Provides multi-user computing to large
organizations for tasks such as managing
extensive databases, financial transactions, and
• Personal computer.
– Provides computing to a single user performing
• Platform is a combination of hardware and
– Windows/PC platform.
– Macintosh platform.
– Mobile Computing platform.
• Cross-platform compatibility.
– Ability of an application to run on different hardware
and operating systems.
• Adobe’s Acrobat .pdf files can be opened on Windows or
Mac OS based computers.
– The WWW provides a cross-platform computing
SYSTEM UNIT and PERIPHERALS
• Contains the components used to
electronically process and store data.
Central Processing Unit.
System board circuitry.
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
• Consists of millions of integrated
transistors that execute program
instructions and manipulate data.
• Sets of transistors include:
Arithmetic Logic Unit
the future for
CPU AT WORK
• Processing data and instructions is
systematically executed in a machine
• Four steps in the cycle:
• Clock speed
– Rate the CPU carries out basic
– Measured in megahertz (MHz) or
• Word size
– Number of bits the processor can
manipulate in one machine cycle.
– 64 bit processor can execute more data
than a 32 bit processor.
• Bus width
– The width of the electronic pathway that
moves data and instructions to the processor.
– A bus 64 bits wide carries more data than a
bus 16 bits wide.
– Method to increase processing speed by
launching more than one instruction in a
single machine cycle.
– Reduced Instruction Set Computer chips
eliminate complex embedded
– Combination of multiple processors to
execute instructions simultaneously.
APPROACHES TO MultiProcessing
• Multiple processors
– CPU + graphics co-processor.
• Multi-core processors
– Two or more logic cores on a single CPU chip
to execute different tasks.
• Parallel processing
– Linking multiple processors together to
operate simultaneously on the same task.
• Electronic storage locations for data and
instructions directly addressed by the CPU.
• Random Access Memory (RAM)
– Volatile storage area for operating system,
software applications, and user data.
– Capacities are measured in megabytes or
gigabytes on personal computers.
• Read Only Memory (ROM)
– Non-volatile electronic storage for frequently
used instructions such as the computer’s boot
• High speed electronic storage to optimize
the performance of the CPU.
– Reduces time to fetch data and instructions
from RAM storage.
• Level 1 or Primary Cache stores data and
instructions on the CPU chip.
• Level 2 Cache positioned between the CPU
• Capacities of cache vary.
– Total amounts are not part of RAM capacity.
• Electronic circuit board at the base of
the system unit.
• Manages flow of electronic bits to:
Analog – Digital converters
I/O interface ports.
• Point of union between the system
board and peripheral devices.
• Data flows to the system board in
– Parallel transmission or
– Serial transmission.
• Ports are external to the system unit.
– Peripherals are plugged into the ports.
• Common ports include:
– VGA or SVGA
– IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
– Audio input/output
– Network port.
USB, Firewire, &
Offers Plug and Play performance.
Supports a daisy-chain bus of multiple devices.
Accepted on PCs and Macs.
Has hot-swappable capability.
Powered through the interface port.
– No more “wall warts.”
• Thunderbolt advantages:
– Higher transfer rates
– Eliminates need for separate video port
– Increases power to peripheral devices.
Hardware components to input,
output, store data and applications
for the processor.
With the miniaturization of today’s mobile
computing devices, the peripherals may not
seem so distant from the system processor.
• Holds data and instructions outside the
system unit for long periods of time.
• Advantages over primary storage:
• Options include magnetic, optical,
• Five Main Uses
– Saving data during edit process.Storage Devices
– Backup data and applications.
Portable hard drive
– Distribute data and applications.
Flash or thumb drive
– Transport data and applications.
– Archive data and applications.
Magnetic tape drive
• Bits are stored in magnetic form on
disk platters or magnetic tape.
• Data stored in addressable tracks
and sectors defined by the operating
– Track — circular paths
– Sector — pie shaped logical divisions of
• Hard Drives contain rigid platters
mounted on a spindle.
– Motor rotates the platters.
– Access arm with read/write head moves
between the platters.
– Data is stored on top
and bottom of each platter.
HARD DRIVE PERFORMANCE
• Storage capacity
– Measured in gigabytes or terabytes.
• Access time
– Measured in milliseconds, the time to locate
data on the platter.
• Transfer rate
– Measured in bytes, the speed of data
transfer from the platter to RAM.
Fixed internal hard drive.
Portable hard drive.
Magnetic tape drive.
– Large storage capacity
– Fast access to data
– Limited durability
– Easily damaged.
The projected cost
of a gigabyte of
in 2016 is .01
• Compact Disc (CD) first used to
replace vinyl records in music
– Stored digital music for permanent, high
– Capacity set at 74 minutes of digitalFYI:
• Amplified light energy.
• When focused on a shiny surface, the beam reflects back
to a photo detector.
• Disc surface is “stamped” with pits and lands.
– Pits — indentations on surface.
– Land — flat area on surface.
• Digital code is read as variations in the reflection intensity.
• High capacity storage.
– Pits = .83 microns long and .5 microns
– Data stored in a continuous spiral from
inside to outside edge of disc.
• Durable data.
– Pits and lands are pressed into a platter
and coated with lacquer material.
– Data is encoded with error
detection/correction to prevent
• Data is organized
– Tracks —
– Frame — physical
format of the data.
• 58 frames form a
sector on CD-ROM
or 2048 bytes of
– Sessions — single
Compact Disc Formats
• Standard physical size.
– 120 mm, 15mm center hole, 1.2 mm
– Led to rapid development of drives to
accept all CD formats.
CD-DA (Digital Audio format).
CD-ROM (Read-Only format).
CD-R (Recordable format).
CD-RW (Re-Writable format).
• Laser head moves along rails to
position the laser lens.
• Light reflects back to a photo
• Motor spins the disc.
• Data is read using:
– CLV — Constant Linear Velocity
– CAV — Constant Angular Velocity.
DIGITAL VERSATILE DISC
• Optical storage that uses:
More precise laser light
New video compression methods
Improved error detection and correction.
– Higher storage capacity than compact disc
• 650MB on CD (74 minutes of music)
• 17GB on DVD (8 hrs of video).
• More precise laser beam reads
– .40 microns wide vs .83 microns on CD
– Smaller pits = more data capacity.
• Multi layer storage.
– Two reflective layers per side
– Each layer stores 4.7GB data.
CD = 780
DVD = 650
Blu-ray = 405
• MPEG2 compression.
– Compresses video at 40:1 ratio without
compromising video quality.
• Improved error detection/correction.
– CDs use 33% storage for ECC/EDC (error
detection and correction).
– DVDs reduce this to 13% of the storage.
• Standards vary by player and data.
• DVD recordable formats:
– DVD-R: compatible with most players &
– DVD-RW: playable in many DVD drives
– DVD-RAM: Removable storage for
BLU-RAY: Next Generation
• Optical storage based on blu-ray laser.
– Shorter wavelength (405nm).
• Massive storage capacity.
– Single layer can store 27GB of data.
• Can store 2 hours of high-definition video or
• 13 hours of standard video.
– Dual layer stores 50GB of data.
• Currently used for recording high definition
video and PlayStation 3 games.
• Computer storage with no moving
• Devices are based on flash memory
– Contains a grid of cells, each with two
transistors separated by a thin layer of
– The insulating oxide layer preserves
information with no need of external
Low power requirements
More durable than devices with movable parts.
– More expensive than magnetic
– Limited capacity
– Limited life expectancy.
Labels for solid state
• USB drive
• Flash drive
• Thumb drive
• Memory stick
Storage in the Cloud
• The “cloud” is a metaphor for a network
server generally accessed via the Internet.
– Users maintain accounts to store, maintain, and
manage data remotely.
• Benefits of networked storage include:
– Ubiquitous access.
• Challenges include:
– Security and reliability of the server.
– Access to data is dependent on the performance
of a remote server and network connections.
SECONDARY STORAGE &
Future of Digital Data
• Practical issues surrounding the
migration of data to secondary
– Effective and efficient data management.
– Enduring file formats over the years.
– Ability to access the data on the storage
• Hardware requirements
• Software dependence.
– Data longevity.
• Capture and transmit data and
instructions to the system using for
processing and storage.
– Capture user text and commands.
• Pointing device.
– Relies on graphic interface to click or select the
– Devices include:
is also a pointing
INPUT DEVICES: SCANNER
• Captures text or graphics using a light-sensing
device called a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD).
• Types of scanners include:
– Flat bed
– Hand held
– Sheet fed
• Scanner quality depends on:
– Spatial resolution
– Color resolution (bit depth).
• Spatial Resolution (dpi).
– Depends on use of image.
• 72 dpi for computer display.
• 300 dpi for printer output.
• Color resolution (bit depth).
– 8 bit setting confines color range to 256.
– Grayscale setting uses black, white and shades of gray.
– Set the size larger or smaller before the scan.
• Tonal quality.
– Adjust brightness and contrast based on preview of
SCANNER & OCR
• Optical Character Recognition is a process
that converts printed text into an editable
word processed digital file.
– OCR software analyzes the image of a character
and translates it to an ASCII code of the character.
• OCR quality depends on software, quality of
printed text, and type of paper being scanned.
– Extensive editing may be required to remove stray
characters or misinterpreted text.
• Captures images in real time at the source.
• Benefits include:
– Instant review of image
– Re-capture the image if necessary
– High quality spatial and color resolution.
• Image file size depends on capture
resolution (6 – 12 megapixel) and color depth
(16 – 24 bit color) can produce large file sizes.
• Images transferred to hard drive via
memory card or USB direct connection.
DIGITAL VIDEO (DV)
• Video captured on built-in hard drive,
mini-digital tape, or DVD.
• Transferred to computer through
• Video editing software
enhances digital sequences.
DV CAMERA PERFORMANCE
• Method used to capture image.
– Single chip reproduce RGB color.
– 3-chip have separate CCD for Red, Green, Blue.
• Lens quality.
• Zoom quality.
– Optical zoom vs. digital zoom.
• Image stabilization.
• Preprogrammed modes.
– Lighting and weather conditions.
and video on
• Devices to transform analog
waveforms to digital files.
• External vs. internal
– CD & Tape players
– Digital Recorders.
• Flat drawing surface for freehand
• User draws or traces image with a
stylus then enhances the image
using software interface.
• Present processed data in a useful
• Devices include:
– Screen display
– Audio speakers
– Hard copy.
• Produce an image on a screen
through a series of individual pixels.
– Display quality is determined by spatial
and color resolution.
– Displays with 1024 X 768 spatial
resolution have more addressable pixels
than 640 X 480 resolution.
– 24-bit color graphics display has richer
colors than 16-bit color.
• Raster scanning technology
generates a display.
– Based on Cathode Ray Tube technology.
• Electronic signal scans
horizontal rows from
top to bottom of screen.
LCD & LED DISPLAY
• Use Thin Film Transistors (TFT)
– Assign a single transistor to each liquid cell to
control color and light.
• LCD displays use fluorescent lamp to project
through polarized liquid crystals.
• LED displays use light emitting diodes for
brighter backlighting and more
• LED’s are becoming commonplace on
laptop and desktop computers.
– They use less power
– Display brighter, richer colors.
• Speakers or headsets are plugged into the
soundboard where digital data is converted
to analog waveforms.
• Sound card circuitry performs four
– Converts digital sound data into analog with
DAC. (digital to analog converter)
– Records sound in digital form with analog ADC.
– Amplifies signal.
– Creates digital sounds using a synthesizer.
• Two basic printing technologies:
– Impact, print head makes contact with the paper.
• Dot-matrix printer.
• Used for multi-part forms and low cost output
– Nonimpact, print head does not contact paper.
• Laser printer
• Ink-jet printer
• Photo printer.
• Ink-jet printer.
– Line printer that delivers high quality color.
– Output quality determined by
• Printer resolution measured in dots/inch
• Paper quality.
• Photo printer.
– Delivers photo-lab-quality output directly
from camera or card.
– Use inkjet cartridges or dye sublimation
process to print image.
• Laser printer.
– Fuse text and image to paper one page at a time.
– High quality output resolutions of 600 to 2400 dpi.
– Deliver high quality color output using cyan,
magenta, yellow, and black toner.
• Multifunction printer.
– Combines printer, scanning, fax,
and copier technology in one device.
• A collection of computers connected
through a communication link to
• Two main categories:
• Covers wide geographic area using
communication lines of an external service
• Computers and peripherals connected within
an organization on privately owned
• A network of networks built on TCP/IP
– Transfer Control Protocol prepares data in packets
to distribute on the network.
– Internet Protocol assigns an numeric address to
each packet of data.
• Common Internet protocols:
– eMail — smtp
– File transfer — ftp
– Web — http.
WORLD WIDE WEB — WWW
• WWW built on revolutionary http protocol.
• Hypertext transfer protocols included:
– Html code that programmed text and images
on a web document.
– Hyperlinks to connect related “pages” on local
and external servers.
– Uniform Resource Locator (URL) as the path
address to create the hyperlink.
• URL includes the protocol, domain name of server,
directory location, and the document to view, often
a .htm orhttp://jbpub.com/cis/new.htm
• Client/Server organization.
– Efficient means to distribute data from the server
and rely on processing at the client (local)
– Commonly used on LANs and WWW.
– Protocol to control flow of data on LAN.
• WiFi & Bluetooth.
– Mobile computing network standards.
• Computer systems
Mobile devices (iPad, iPhone,
• System unit
– Primary memory
– System board
• Interface ports
– Thunder Bolt
• Main categories of software
– Operating system
• Functions of the operating system
• Types of programming languages
• Software for multimedia development
• A collection of computer programs that
govern the operation of a computer.
– Program: list of instructions that can be
carried out by the computer.
• Three categories of software:
– Operating systems
– Programming languages
YOU DECIDE … Software
Label each as an operating system, programming
• Collection of programs that:
– Provides a user interface
– Manages computer resources
– Executes application programs.
• User interface: a means to communicate
with the programs and hardware.
– Command line interface
– Graphical user interface (GUI)
– Natural user interface (NUI).
• Manages computer resources such
• Manage the processor
– Controls how and when programs are
– Control methods:
• Single user, single tasking
• Single user, multi-tasking
– If the processor is sufficiently powerful
users are not aware of sharing the
• Manage memory
– Controls how much memory is accessed
and used by application programs.
• Virtual memory: operating system
assigns a portion of the hard disk to
– Problem: access to files in virtual
memory is slowed.
– Solution: install more RAM.
• Control peripherals
– Built-in programs control devices such
as monitors, printers, storage drives.
– Additional device drivers can be
downloaded or come