SEU Management Employee Survey in Healthcare Essay

Description


Assignment Question(s):
Data is the new oil for businesses. Generally, businesses relay on these data to perform
better. There are many tools’ businesses use to collect data such surveys. Surveys are
particularly useful because you can quickly get the responses of your audience. In your
future workplace, you will have many opportunities to create, use and participate in
surveys. Your task for this assignment is to assess your ability and knowledge in
creating a survey.
1. Choose the reason and audience for your survey carefully. (2 marks)
2. Develop your survey. (8 marks)
Note: Use MS Words only to develop your survey
Because learning changes everything. ®
Chapter 12
Research and
Business Proposals
and Planning for
Business Reports
© 2021 McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.
No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill.
Learning Objectives
1
12.1 Explain how planning and conducting
business research for reports impacts your
credibility.
12.2 Create research objectives that are specific
and achievable.
12.3 Explain principles of effective design for
survey questions and choices.
12.4 Develop charts and tables to concisely display
data and accentuate key messages.
© McGraw Hill
Learning Objectives
2
12.5 Evaluate the usefulness of data sources for
business research.
12.6 Conduct secondary research to address a
business problem.
12.7 Evaluate research data, charts, and tables for
fairness and effectiveness.
© McGraw Hill
Analyzing Your Audience for
Business Reports
Developing Research-Based Business Reports

Identify what decision makers want to accomplish.

© McGraw Hill
Consider your target audience of decision makers’ primary
business goals, research objectives, and expectations.
Gathering Information through
Primary Research
1
Primary Research
Secondary Research
• The analysis of data that
you, people from your
organization, or others
under your direction have
collected.
• The analysis of data
collected by others with
no direction from you or
members of your
organization.
• Generally most useful for
business reports.
• Common types include
analysis of internal data,
survey research, focus
groups, interviews, and case
studies.
© McGraw Hill
Gathering Information through
Primary Research
2
Survey Research

Increasingly common because of the ease of
administering online surveys.

Generally involves written questionnaires.

Closed questions.

Open-ended questions.
© McGraw Hill
Table 12.1 Creating Research Objectives
Less
Effective
Determine how satisfied our
conference guests are.
More
Effective
Determine guest satisfaction
This objective is specific. The
among conference attendees for statement leads to a focused
key conference amenities and
approach to research.
services.
Less
Effective
Understand VR technologies.
More
Effective
Identify use cases of and market This objective is specific. It
demand for VR technologies in
focuses on a context that is
group tourism.
relevant to the Aicasus Tours.
© McGraw Hill
This objective is not specific
enough. The statement does
not lead to a focused approach
to research.
This objective is not specific. It
is too broad and lacks context.
Create Surveys
1
Online Surveys

You can quickly get the responses of dozens if not
hundreds of colleagues, current or potential customers, or
members of other groups of interest.

You can dump the data into a spreadsheet.
© McGraw Hill
Create Surveys
2
Principles for Survey
Questions
• Simple to answer.
• Non-leading.
• Exhaustive and unambiguous.
• Limited to a single idea.
© McGraw Hill
Create Surveys
3
Survey Questions Should Be Simple to Answer

Should contain short questions and short response
options.

Read in 10 to 20 seconds per question.

Answer in a few seconds.
© McGraw Hill
Table 12.2a Creating Simple Survey
Questions
On a scale from 1,
Less
Effective not satisfied, to 4,
extremely
satisfied, how
satisfied were you
in the following
areas related to
your conference
experience (if you
have no opinion
or did not use the
following services,
simply mark N/A)?
© McGraw Hill
The question is 39
words long. Many
respondents will be
confused about how
to answer the
questions without
labels for the
numerical values.
Table 12.2b Creating Simple Survey
Questions
How satisfied
More
Effective were you with the
following aspects
of your
conference
experience?
© McGraw Hill
The question
contains just 12
words. Formatting
and labels allow
respondents to
quickly and precisely
process the
information.
Table 12.2c Creating Simple Survey
Questions
Rank-order each of the following guest services This question is
Less
complicated to
Effective and amenities in providing value to you during
your conference stay. (Rank-order each item.
Place a 1 next to your favorite item, a 2 next to
your second-favorite item, and so on. Do not
place a number next to an amenity or service
that you did not use during your stay.)
___ Spa
___ Fitness center
___ Outdoor swimming pool
___ Prestigio golf course
___ Prestigio comedy club
___ One of the Prestigio restaurants
© McGraw Hill
answer. Many
respondents will not
spend time to
carefully rank each
item. Other
responses may be
inaccurate or
unreliable.
Table 12.2d Creating Simple Survey
Questions
Which of the
More
Effective following
GUEST
SERVICES AND
AMENITIES did
you use during
your conference
stay? Check
ALL that apply.
© McGraw Hill
This question is
easy to answer.
Respondents are
given just one
choice and can
make this
judgment within a
few seconds.
Create Surveys
4
Survey Questions Should Be Non-Leading

Do not suggest an answer.

© McGraw Hill
Otherwise, it will produce unreliable and unusable information.
Table 12.3 Creating Non-Leading Survey
Choices
Less
Effective
To show my support for the green
meeting movement, I would
recommend the Prestigio as a good
site for a business conference.
1. Strongly disagree
2. Disagree
3. Neutral
4. Agree
5. Strongly agree
This survey question is
leading. It suggests to
respondents a correct or
right answer. It would not
provide reliable or useful
results.
More
Effective
I would recommend the Prestigio as a
good site for a business conference.
1. Strongly disagree
2. Disagree
3. Neutral
4. Agree
5. Strongly agree
This survey question is nonleading. It does not suggest
or manipulate a response. It
would likely provide useful
data.
© McGraw Hill
Create Surveys
5
Survey Choices Should Be Exhaustive and
Unambiguous

Exhaustive: All possibilities are available.

Unambiguous: Only one choice is available.
Survey Questions Should Contain One Idea
© McGraw Hill
Table 12.4 Creating Exhaustive and
Unambiguous Survey Choices
Less
Effective
Age:
A. Under 30
B. 31 to 40
C. 41 to 50
D. 50 to 64
More
Effective
Age:
These choices are both exhaustive and
A. 30 and under unambiguous. Any respondent of any age
B. 31 to 40
would find just one correct response.
C. 41 to 50
D. 51 to 65
E. Over 65
© McGraw Hill
These choices are neither exhaustive nor
unambiguous. They are not exhaustive
because respondents who are 65 and over
would not have a choice to select. They are not
unambiguous because two of the choices
overlap (C and D); in other words, a person
who is 50 could select either option.
Table 12.5 Creating Survey Questions with
a Single Idea
Less
Effective
How much do you know
about green meetings and
possible savings on these
meetings?
A. Nothing at all
B. A little
C. Some
D. A lot
This question contains two ideas: (1)
what the respondent knows about
green meetings and (2) what the
respondent knows about possible
savings on green meetings. This is
confusing to the respondent and
impossible for the researcher to
interpret.
More
Effective
How much do you know
about green meeting
options for your business?
A. Nothing at all
B. A little
C. Some
D. A lot
This question contains one idea. As a
result, the question is easy for the
respondent to answer and easy for
the researcher to analyze.
© McGraw Hill
Analyze Your Data
Advice for Analyzing Data

Learn about forecasting and other forms of statistical and
quantitative analysis.

Learn about spreadsheet, database, and statistical
software.

Rely on others in your analysis.

Stay focused on your business problem and look for the
big picture.
© McGraw Hill
Communicate with Charts and Tables
Statistics and Figures

Don’t overload your audience members with data.

Focus on the main (nonnumerical) message.
© McGraw Hill
1
Communicate with Charts and Tables
Designing Effective Charts

Can express a strong message and leave a lasting visual
impression on viewers and readers.

Have the potential to draw readers into a document or
presentation almost instantaneously.

Planning is key.
© McGraw Hill
2
Designing Effective Charts
Line Charts

Useful for depicting events and trends over time.
Pie Charts

Useful for illustrating the pieces within a whole.
Bar Charts

Useful to compare amounts or quantities.
© McGraw Hill
Create Effective Charts
Criteria:
1. Title descriptiveness.
2. Focal points.
3. Information sufficiency.
4. Ease of processing.
5. Takeaway message.
© McGraw Hill
Figure 12.2 Less Effective and More
Effective Line Charts
Access the text alternative for slide images.
© McGraw Hill
Design and Formatting of Line Charts
Key Design and Formatting
Problems in Less Effective
Chart
Adjustments in More
Effective Chart
Nondescriptive, bland title. It does
Title
descriptiveness not tie into any primary message.
Title and subtitle focus on
intentional improvement.
Focal points
Lacks focal points. All parts of the
chart are treated equally—thus,
there is no emphasis or indication
of what should be the key points of
comparison.
The callout box focuses
attention on the staff and
service initiative as the cause of
rising customer satisfaction. A
darker, thicker line with a bold
label draws attention to the
Prestigio data series.
Information
sufficiency
Inadequate information about the
rating scale. What do the numbers
represent? What is the year for
which data was gathered?
The note provides information
about the rating scale.
© McGraw Hill
1
Design and Formatting of Line Charts
Key Design and Formatting
Problems in Less Effective
Chart
Adjustments in More Effective
Chart
Ease of
processing
Legend placed on the right side.
This forces the reader to move
back and forth between the
legend and the data series in the
plot area. Further, the colors do
not aid in the information
presentation.
Instead of a legend, data labels are
placed directly at the end of each
data series (line) to make
identification of each hotel’s
performance easier. Additionally, the
color scheme is kept to a minimum,
thereby prominently displaying the
dramatic rise in ratings.
Takeaway
message
Staff and service ratings have
improved for the Prestigio over
the past year. However, the
message requires too much
effort for the viewer and could
easily be missed or forgotten
quickly.
All elements of the chart capture the
message that the Prestigio staff and
service initiative has successfully
improved customer satisfaction
compared to competitors.
© McGraw Hill
2
Figure 12.3 Less Effective and More
Effective Pie Charts
Access the text alternative for slide images.
© McGraw Hill
Design and Formatting of Pie Charts
1
Key Design and Formatting
Problems in Less Effective
Chart
Adjustments in More Effective
Chart
Title
Descriptive but unexciting
title.
Descriptive title focuses attention on
the fact that these are 3-day
conference attendees.
Focal
points
The main focal point is the
large pie slice. The colors
used give a very dense and
dark feeling to the visual.
The primary focal point is the slice
highlighting those not purchasing
any Internet service. It is labeled
more effectively (“No Purchase of
Internet” versus “0 days” in the less
effective chart) and is written in bold
text on a darker-colored background
to draw attention to this key point.
Information
sufficiency
Absence of data label on
each slice makes this chart
difficult to interpret.
Data labels are provided in
percentages.
© McGraw Hill
Design and Formatting of Pie Charts
2
Key Design and Formatting
Problems in Less Effective
Chart
Adjustments in More Effective
Chart
Ease of
processing
Legend is placed on the bottom.
This forces the reader to move
back and forth between the
legend and the pie slices in the
plot area. Also, the breakaway,
3-D shape of the object skews
the data. The pie slices are not
arranged for fastest processing.
Data series names and data
labels are placed together in the
pie slices to foster easy
processing. The largest pie slice
is located at 12 o’clock for quick
recognition (most people read
pie charts beginning at 12 and
continue to read in a clockwise
direction).
Takeaway
message
Most conference attendees do
not purchase Internet services.
However, getting the message
requires a great deal of effort
and could easily be missed or
forgotten quickly.
All aspects of the chart
collectively demonstrate that
conference attendees are
unlikely to purchase Internet
services.
© McGraw Hill
Figure 12.4 Less Effective and More
Effective Bar Charts
Access the text alternative for slide images.
© McGraw Hill
Design and Formatting of Bar Charts
1
Key Design and
Adjustments in More
Formatting Problems
Effective Chart
in Less Effective Chart
Title
Nondescriptive, bland
descriptiveness title.
Title immediately recognizes
the Prestigio’s leading
position in dining ratings.
Focal points
Lacks focal points. All
bars are treated equally.
Darker color of the Prestigio
bar draws attention to it.
Information
sufficiency
Inadequate information
about the rating scale.
A note about the rating scale
and inclusion of data labels
provides sufficient
information.
© McGraw Hill
Design and Formatting of Bar Charts
2
Key Design and Formatting
Problems in Less Effective Chart
Adjustments in More
Effective Chart
Ease of
processing
The legend is unnecessary and
distracting. The items are not ordered
effectively (the order is neither
alphabetical nor quantitative) to help
draw rapid comparisons. The large
gap size compared to bar width
reduces quick processing. The axis
increments are in rarely used units
(generally, units in multiples of 2, 5,
and 10 are more natural).
The chart is arranged in
descending order by
average ratings to make
comparisons easier. Bar
width in comparison to gap
width is most conducive to
rapid processing.
Takeaway
message
The takeaway message is that the
Prestigio has higher dining ratings.
However, the message is weak and
could easily be glossed over or
forgotten.
The Prestigio occupies the
proud position of leading its
competitors in dining
ratings. This is a strong,
optimistic, and memorable
message.
© McGraw Hill
Table 12.6 Formatting Guidelines for
Specific Chart Types
Chart Type
Formatting Guidelines
All charts







Line
• Scale should be about two-thirds of the range included in the chart.
• Series names should be placed on or attached directly to lines.
• Only four or fewer data series (lines) should be included.
Pie
• Largest slice should begin at 12 o’clock and go clockwise; second-largest slice
should begin at 12 o’clock and go counterclockwise.
• Exploding slices should be used sparingly.
• Pie slices should complete a whole (add up to 100% of a data series).
Bar




© McGraw Hill
Ensure that all data is appropriately labeled.
Avoid using too many bright colors; they can be distracting.
Use darker colors to represent your most important data series.
Avoid unusual fonts or too many special effects.
Avoid 3-D charts.
Ensure that all text is horizontal.
Avoid white type on dark backgrounds in most cases.
Bars should be about twice the width of the space in between bars.
Baseline should always be zero.
Bars should be arranged in ascending or descending order in most cases.
Legend should only be used if the chart has two or more data series.
Figure 12.6a Less Effective Table
Survey Results
During the three days of the conference you attended at the Prestigio, how
many days did you purchase Internet service?
Days of Internet Service
0
1
2
3
All Respondents
154
15
31
36
Male
82
8
15
22
Female
72
7
16
14
Under $30,000
15
0
1
2
$30,000 to $39,999
41
4
3
7
$40,000 to $49,999
48
3
11
12
$50,000 to $74,999
33
6
7
8
$75,000 to $100,000
12
2
4
4
Over $100,000
5
0
5
3
Gender
Income
© McGraw Hill
Figure 12.6b More Effective Table
Internet Service Purchases among Conference Guests
Days of Internet Service Purchased
(Number of Respondents in Parentheses)
0 Days
1 Day
2 Days
3 Days
65.5% (154) 6.4% (15)
13.2% (31)
15.3% (36)
236
Male
64.6% (82)
6.3% (8)
11.8% (15)
17.3% (22)
127
Female
66.1% (72)
6.4% (7)
14.7% (16)
12.8% (14)
109
Under $30,000
83.3% (15)
0.0% (0)
5.6% (1)
11.1% (6)
18
$30,000 to $39,999
74.5% (41)
7.3% (4)
5.5% (3)
12.7% (7)
55
$40,000 to $49,999
64.9% (48)
4.1% (3)
14.9% (11)
16.2% (12)
74
$50,000 to $74,999
61.1% (33)
11.1% (6)
13.0% (7)
14.8% (8)
54
$75,000 to $100,000
54.5% (12)
9.1% (2)
18.2% (4)
18.2% (4)
22
Over $100,000
38.5% (5)
0.0% (0)
38.5% (5)
23.1% (3)
13
All Respondents
Total (#)
Gender
Income
© McGraw Hill
Table 12.7 Formatting Guidelines for
Tables
Issue
Formatting Guidelines
Order
• Order your entries appropriately (alphabetical or numerical
order of categories, or ascending/descending order of values of
comparison).
Indentation
• Indent or otherwise set apart items within a category.
Data series
• Present comparative data series vertically.
Column/row
labels
• Label columns and rows effectively.
Grid lines
• Use grid lines for every three to five rows at natural breaks (new
categories); this simple design technique allows readers to
easily scan rows.
• Avoid grid lines on all borders; these tend to clutter the table.
• Avoid alternating background colors on rows in most cases; this
is also distracting and unnecessary.
© McGraw Hill
Gathering Information through
Secondary Research
Choose a Research Topic

Avoid settling on your topic too quickly and pace your
research.

Choose your topic strategically.

Define the scope of your project.

Find ways to make your research more analytical.

Talk to others who can help you.
© McGraw Hill
Evaluate Data Quality
1
Important Issues in Evaluating Data

Reliability.

Relevance.

Adaptability.

Expertise.

Biases.
© McGraw Hill
Evaluate Data Quality
2
Secondary Research Sources

White papers.

Industry publications.

Business periodicals.

Scholarly journals.

External blogs.

Business and management books.
© McGraw Hill
Table 12.9a Strengths and Limitations of Data
Quality for Primary and Secondary Research
Sources
Reliability Relevance
Adaptability Expert- Bias
based
Primary
research
High
High
High
Medium
–High
Goals and
preexisting notions
of the researcher
White
papers
Low–High
Medium–
High
Low
Medium
–High
Organizational
mission and
objectives
Medium–
Industry
publications High
Medium–
High
Low
Medium
–High
Mission of the
publication/editing
team
Medium–
Business
publications High
Low–
Medium
Low
Low–
High
Mission of the
publication/editing
team
© McGraw Hill
Table 12.9b Strengths and Limitations of Data
Quality for Primary and Secondary Research
Sources
Reliability
Relevance Adaptability ExpertBased
Bias
Scholarly
journals
High
Low
Low
High
Theoretical
significance
External
blogs,
wikis, and
other
websites
Low–High
Medium–
High
Low
Low–High Writers’
career
objectives
Business
books
Medium–
High
Low–High
Low
Medium–
High
© McGraw Hill
The latest,
greatest idea
mentality;
easy fixes
Conduct Library Research
Library Sources

Books across a wide range of disciplines and topics.

Digital resources.

Company and industry reports and scholarly journals.

Online databases.
© McGraw Hill
Table 12.10 Strategies for Using Search
Terms Effectively
Strategy
Example
Use Boolean
operators.
“Virtual reality” and “Group tours”
Virtual reality and Group tours
Virtual reality or Group tours
328
145,822
7,928,251
Use alternative
keywords.
“Augmented reality” and “Global
tourism”
“Emerging technologies”
and “Historical tours”
“VR headsets” and Tourism
62
© McGraw Hill
Number of Hits in
ProQuest
8
305
Document Your Research
Excellent documentation helps decision makers
evaluate the credibility of your report.
Use a system for documenting sources.
© McGraw Hill
Use Online Information for Business
Research
Strategies

Always evaluate data quality.

Do more than just “Google it.”


Go to reputable business and industry websites and conduct
searches.

Find online discussions and forums about your selected topic.

Search beyond text-based information.
Be persistent.
© McGraw Hill
Apply the FAIR Test to Your Research
Data and Charts
1
Be FAIR

Examine all the available facts and interpret them from
various perspectives.

Don’t make assumptions or draw conclusions
beforehand.
© McGraw Hill
Apply the FAIR Test to Your Research
Data and Charts
2
Don’t Mislead

Don’t cherry-pick data.

Provide all the relevant facts, even if they don’t fit into
convenient conclusions.

Grant access to your data.

Remember the impacts of your data on others and
present it with respect.
© McGraw Hill
Table 12.11 Creating Fair Charts
Less Fair
By displaying this chart on an axis
that contains only part of the scale
and no note or legend, this chart
exaggerates the differences in
cleanliness ratings.
More Fair
By displaying the entire scale and
providing a note about the ratings,
this chart accurately reflects the
differences in cleanliness ratings. It
clearly shows that although the
Prestigio is lower than its
competitors, it still has an average
cleanliness rating that is good.
Note: Ratings are on a scale from 1,
poor, to 5, excellent. All ratings were
retrieved from the Wahoo travel
website and are averaged for each
month across the year.
Access the text alternative for slide images.
© McGraw Hill
Business Communication: Developing
Leaders for a Networked World, 4e
Chapter 12
Because learning changes everything.
www.mheducation.com
© McGraw Hill
© 2021 McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.
No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill.
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