RES 500 Saudi Electronic University Academic Writing Worksheet

Description


College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Critical Thinking Assignment 5: Module – 11-13
Deadline: End of Week 13
Course Name: Academic Writing and
Student’s Name:
Research Skills
Course Code: RES500
Student’s ID Number:
Term:
CRN:
Academic Year:
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out
of 160 marks
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
Regulations:
✓ This assignment is an individual assignment.
✓ Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the
textbook along with few scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.
✓ Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines,
citing references as appropriate.
✓ Submit your findings in a 10-12 page document, excluding the title page, abstract and
required reference page, which are never a part of the minimum content requirements, in
the Assignment Dropbox.
✓ It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check
(available under Information folder on your Blackboard) prior to submitting them to your
instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment to the Originality
Check tool, review the TurnItIn Originality Check – Student Guide for step-by-step
instructions.
An Overview about Assignment submission Time & grades:
Type of Assignment
Posting Date
Due date
Marks
Critical thinking
Week 11
End of Week 13
160
Grace period*
* Grace Period: with accepted excuse (accepted by instructor) with deduction of 10% for late submission
1
No
Module 11-13
Assignment-VI: Final research proposal (160 points)
This is your final assignment for which a sample format is provided in the
blackboard (Week 11 materials). It is already attached in the next page. You must
submit the same as per the given sample format. Adherence to the format is
necessary. This final research proposal must contain all the stages and processes
involved in a typical research proposal. Read the Chapter 16 of your textbook to
have a clarity on writing a report or proposal.
Answers
Start from Next Page in the given Format
2
RESEARCH PROPOSAL
On
INSERT TITLE HERE
By
[Your Full Name Here]
Enrolment No. xxxxxxx
[Insert Degree Name]
[Insert Department Name]
[Insert Name of College]
[Insert Course Code: xxxxx]
[Insert Branch Name]
Date of Submission: DD MM 20YY
Supervisor Name:
Dr. Xxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 General Introduction
1.2 Research Questions
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Significance of the Study
Chapter 2. Literature Review
2.1 Heading 1
2.2 Heading 2
2.3 Heading 3
2.4 Hypotheses (If any)
Chapter 3. Methodology Adopted
3.1 Research Approach
3.2 Research Design
Chapter 4. Proposed Data Analysis
Chapter 5. Implementation Plan
Page No.
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Page No.
Page No.
Page No.
References
Appendices (Questionnaire)
4
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. General Introduction
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
We, human beings, are continuously evolving as indispensable thinking creatures of the universe.
The man has come a very long way and has rightly made great strides in almost every conceivable
field of achievement. Scientific breakthroughs and technological advancements have enhanced our
confidence in understanding or even conquering the nature at large. The man is regarded to be in
the midst of best of times, the world have ever witnessed. Some fifty years back, no one could
have imagined the level of the technological feat or the extent of global integration of countries
which we are experiencing now. Considering the increasing share of emerging economies in the
global growth, there have been substantial improvements in enriching the lives of millions of
people around the globe.
1.2. Research Questions
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
The research questions is one of the most important parts of your research project, thesis or
dissertation. It’s important to spend some time assessing and refining your question before you get
started. The exact form of your question will depend on the length of your project, the type of
research, the topic, and the research problem. But all research questions should be focused,
specific, appropriately complex, and relevant to a social or scholarly issue.
The research questions for this study are:
1) What are the skills & resources required for the success of social enterprises & what are
those skills where the enterprise can invest in?
2) What are the input factors for implementing the social enterprise evaluation process?
1.3. Research Objectives
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
Formulating research objectives in an appropriate manner is one of the most important aspects of
your thesis. This is because research aim and objectives determine the scope, depth and the overall
direction of the research. Research question is the central question of the study that has to be
answered on the basis of research findings. The objectives of a sample thesis are given under:
5
Hence, the research, “Title of your research’’ has been formulated with the following primary
objective:
1) To get a deeper understanding of the critical success factors of social enterprises operating
in different social settings in India in terms of their influence in social entrepreneurship
success.
Depending upon the nature of your study, you can divide the main objective into sub-objectives
also. However, this is optional. You can have only main objective or you can divide it into the
required number of sub-objectives depending upon the nature of your study. For example, the
above mentioned main objective can be divided into following sub-objectives.
Thus, in accordance with the above-mentioned primary objective, the study was acknowledged
with the set of following set of sub-objectives in order to conduct the research in a more
comprehensive way:
✓ To determine the importance and criticality of individual-level factors of leadership,
entrepreneurship orientation, networking, business planning skills and their constituent
attributes in social enterprise success.
✓ To determine the importance and criticality of organizational-level factors of innovative
financing, triple bottom line planning, social enterprise marketing, community
engagement, organizational culture, social impact evaluation, frugal innovation, human
capital and their constituent attributes in social enterprise success.
✓ To determine the importance and criticality of institutional-level factors of Government
support and its constituent attributes in social enterprise success.
1.4. Significance of the Study
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
It provides details to the reader on how the study will contribute such as what the study will
contribute and who will benefit from it. It also includes an explanation of the work’s importance as
well as its potential benefits. For example the above mentioned example, the significance can be
written in the following way
The research makes important contributions to existing literature on the critical factors determining
the success of social enterprises from both managerial and academic point of view:
6
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In this chapter, all the literature available on the different approaches to the concept of your
research is explicitly reviewed. Here you can write the outline or plan of your review like in how
many sections and what you are discussing in each section.
2.1. Sample Main Heading
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
Social entrepreneurship in common parlance refers to entrepreneurial activity with an embedded
social purpose. Although, entrepreneurial activities with a social concern can be traced back in the
history but the social entrepreneurship as an innovative model for social problem solving has
recently emerged (Robinson et al., 2009; Mair & Marti, 2006; Peredo & McLean, 2006; Dees et
al., 2002; Chell, 2007). Thus, social entrepreneurship mainly stands for endeavors which primarily
focus over social value creation and thus social mission remains central to every social
entrepreneurship activity.
The social entrepreneurship has become a global phenomenon, impacting societies by catalyzing
social transformations for societal wellbeing. The phenomenon mainly addresses the basic needs
of human society which were neglected in the race for mainstream development. As such, the
phenomenon can occur in any society and often such local social entrepreneurship initiatives have
the potential for scale up and replication at the global level. E-g: Microfinance of Bangladesh.
2.2. Sample Main Heading 2
As described above, the idea of social enterprise is certainly not new as businesses with social
missions can be traced back in the nineteenth century. Thus, the practice of social enterprise may
well be ahead of the theory as in other areas of social action (Sarah et al., 2002).
2.3. Sample Main Heading 3
As described above, the idea of social enterprise is certainly not new as businesses with social
missions can be traced back in the nineteenth century. Thus, the practice of social enterprise may
well be ahead of the theory as in other areas of social action (Sarah et al., 2002).
2.4. Hypotheses (if any)
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
7
Write here the hypothesis of your study. It can be only one or it can be even more than one as per
your choice and nature of study. For example, for the sample example provided in chapter one, the
hypothesis can be like follows.
For achieving the objectives of the study, few hypotheses were presumed. These were formed on
the basis of previous and current studies on the topic of critical success factors of social enterprises;
the hypotheses are described as follows:
Hypothesis -1
H1a: The possession of strong business planning skills in key individuals of social enterprises is
significantly associated with the success of social enterprises.
Hypothesis -2
H2a: Having a strong entrepreneurship orientation in social entrepreneurs is significantly
associated with the success of social enterprises.
3. THE METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, the research process of your thesis is to be well-defined and described sequentially.
Starting with (1) research preparation, research approach; process of the survey, concerning
research design, participants/respondents, sampling procedure and survey design, sample plan,
research instrument, method of analysis and the limitations are discussed in detail.
3.1. Research Approach
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
Research approach is a plan and procedure that consists of the steps of broad assumptions to
detailed method of data collection, analysis and interpretation. It is therefore, based on the nature
of the research problem being addressed. The researcher’s choice of a particular research approach
is governed by the nature of the research problems he/she wants to solve (Yin 1994; Merriam
1998).
3.2. Research Design
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
Research design represents the overall functional plan or blueprint (Babbie & Mouton, 2008) for
the research project. Whereas research methodology refers to the standard set of tools, techniques,
and approaches used for the purpose of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by the
researcher, the research design is the purposeful way in which such methods are linked together to
address the research questions or reach conclusions. Tempering an appropriate research design is
8
critical for the attainment of specified goals or objectives outlined for the research project.
Therefore, the research design is ought to be trustworthy and reliable while being scientifically
grounded (Cooper & Schindler, 2006; Churchill & Iacobucci, 2002). The research design refers to
the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent
and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes
the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
3.2.1. Target Population (Sampling Technique and Sample Size)
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
The target population is the total group of individuals from which the sample might be drawn. A
sample is the group of people who take part in the investigation. The target population is the total
group of individuals from which the sample might be drawn. A sample is the group of people who
take part in the investigation. The people who take part are referred to as “participants”.
Please provide a description of your target population. Also indicate your expected sample size as
well as what type of sampling will be used and why.
3.2.2. Data Collection Approach
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers
to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods
can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of
data collection. You need to write here the types of data you will be using and also how you
collected those sources of data.
4. PROPOSED DATA ANALYSIS
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
This chapter analyses and interprets the data collected. The chapter discusses the results of the
study. You can divide the chapter into the desired number of sections and sub-sections. Analysis is
still a method or a tool being used to break down your findings.
9
5. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN (ASSUMED)
Indicate in the form of a Gantt chart, the expected research start date, the duration of some
important phases/activities and also indicate the tentative project end date and total duration of the
project.
Time Frame (Gantt-Chart)
(Assume that you will undertake a full research of four to six months)
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
Activities
Duration
(Days)
Time
( Month)
Introduction
Literature
Review
Data
collection
Report
writing
Submission
of final
Report
10
Time
( Month)
References (Sample)
1) Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. (2005). Entrepreneurship, innovation and technological
change. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 1(4), 1–65.
2) Adams, C. (2015). Understanding integrated reporting: The concise guide to integrated
thinking and the future of corporate reporting. Do Sustainability.
3) Adler, P., & Kwon, S. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of
Management Review 27(1) 17-40.
Appendices (Questionnaire)
11
12
Chapter 13
STAGE 3: COLLECT, PREPARE, AND EXAMINE DATA
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-1
Learning Objectives
Understand . . .
 The tasks of data collection.
 The use of content analysis to post-code textual
and verbal data.
 The importance of editing raw data to assure it is
complete, accurate, and correctly coded.
 The exploratory data analysis techniques that
provide visual representations of the data.
 How cross-tabulation examines relationships
between variables.
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-2
Data Collection,
Preparation,
and
Examination
in the Research
Process
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13-3
Collect the Data
Train the data collectors
Determine the data collection timeline
Implement instrument disposition process
Invite chosen participants
Activate the Survey
Remind participant to complete/return instrument
Enter the data
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-4
Collect the Data
Train the data collectors
Determine the data collection timeline
Implement instrument disposition process
Invite chosen participants
Activate the Survey
Remind participant to complete/return instrument
Enter the data
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-5
Instrument Disposition
Mail
Fax
Criteria
Drop box
Email
Upload
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-6
Collect the Data
Train the data collectors
Determine the data collection timeline
Implement instrument disposition process
Invite chosen participants
Activate the Survey
Remind participant to complete
& return instrument
Enter the data
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-7
Invitations
Purpose
Disclosure
Incentives
Activities
Involved
Factors
to Consider
Script
Screens
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13-8
Collect the Data
Train the data collectors
Determine the data collection timeline
Implement instrument disposition process
Invite chosen participants
Activate the Survey
Remind participant to complete
& return instrument
Enter the data
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-9
Collect the Data
Train the data collectors
Determine the data collection timeline
Implement instrument disposition process
Invite chosen participants
Activate the Survey
Remind participant to complete
& return instrument
Enter the data
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-10
Collect the Data
Train the data collectors
Determine the data collection timeline
Implement instrument disposition process
Invite chosen participants
Activate the Survey
Remind participant to complete
& return instrument
Enter the data
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-11
Data Concepts
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13-12
Partial Data File
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13-13
Partial Data File
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13-14
Partial Coding Scheme
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13-15
Partial Coding Scheme
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13-16
Prepare the Data: 2 Tasks
PostCollection
Coding of
Data
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Editing
Data
13-17
Editing Criteria
Accurate
Complete
Criteria
Appropriately
Coded
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13-18
Editing
Field editing
 Entry gaps identified
 Ad-hoc notes
translated
 Data validation
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13-19
Precoding
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13-20
Post-Coding Open-Ended Questions
6. What prompted you to purchase your
most recent life insurance policy?
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
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13-21
Units within Content Analysis
Context
Sampling
Recording
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13-22
Types of Recording Units
Syntactical
Referential
Propositional
Thematic
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13-23
Content Analysis Displays
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13-24
Proximity Plot
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13-25
Appropriately Coded for Analysis
Appropriate to the
research problem
Exhaustive
Categories
should be…
Mutually exclusive
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Derived from one
classification principle
13-26
Edit for Accuracy
Intra-rater
Reliability
Inter-rater
Reliability
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13-27
Handling “Don’t Know” Responses
Question: Do you have a productive relationship
with your present salesperson?
Years of
Purchasing
No
Don’t Know
10%
40%
38%
1 – 3 years
30
30
32
4 years or more
60
30
30
65%
n = 650
15%
n = 150
20%
n = 200
Less than 1 year
Total
Yes
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13-28
Types of DK responses
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13-29
Recoding
Locus of
Responsibility
Mentioned
A. Company
_____________
B. Customer
_____________
C. Joint CompanyCustomer
_____________
F. Other
_____________
Not
Mentioned
Locus of Responsibility
_______________
A. Management
1. Sales manager
_______________
2. Sales process
3. Other
_______________
4. No action area identified
B. Management
_______________
1. Training
C. Customer
1. Buying processes
2. Other
3. No action area identified
D. Environmental conditions
E. Technology
F. Other
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Frequency
(n = 100)
10
20
7
3
15
12
8
5
20
13-30
Recoding
Variable requires
new mapping rules
Merges initial
variable categories
May reduce the data level
of the initial variable
May change statistical
operations for variable
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-31
Data Entry
Keyboarding
Digital/
Barcodes
Database
Programs
Optical
Recognition
Voice
recognition
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13-32
Missing Data Types
Data missing completely
at random (MCAR)
Data missing at random
(MAR)
Data missing but not
missing at random (NMAR)
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13-33
Missing Data Correction Techniques
Listwise Deletion
Pairwise Deletion
Predictive Replacement
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13-34
Data Analysis Techniques
Exploratory
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Confirmatory
13-35
Role of EDA in the Research Process
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13-36
Frequency Table:
Appropriate Social Networking Age
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13-37
Pie Graph
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13-38
Bar Graph
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13-39
Frequency Table
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13-40
Histogram
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13-41
Stem-and-Leaf Display
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13-42
Pareto Diagram
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13-43
Boxplot Components
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13-44
Diagnostics with Boxplots
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13-45
Boxplot Comparison
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13-46
Mapping
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13-47
SPSS Cross-Tabulation
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13-48
Percentages in Cross-Tabulation
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13-49
Guidelines for Using Percentages
Higher number is
denominator
Don’t average unless
weighted
To average, weight by
group size
Changes = never >100%
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-50
Cross-Tabulation with Control and
Nested Variables
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13-51
Automatic Interaction Detection (AID)
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13-52
Key Terms
 Automatic interaction









detection (AID)
Boxplot
Cell
Coding scheme
Confirmatory data
analysis (CFA)
Content analysis
Context units
Contingency table
Control variable
Cross-tabulation
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
 Data collection
 Data entry
 Data field
 Data file
 Data preparation
 Data record
 Data validation
 Data base
 “Don’t Know” (DK
response
 Editing
13-53
Key Terms (cont.)
 Exploratory data analysis









(EDA)
Five-number summary
Frequency table
Histogram
Instrument disposition
Interquartile range (IQR)
Inter-rater reliability
Intra-rater reliability
Listwise deletion
Marginals
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
 Missing Data
 Data missing at random
(MAR)
 Data missing but not missing
at random (NMAR)
 Data missing completely at
random (MCAR)
 Nonresistant statistics
 Outliers
 Pairwise deletion
 Pareto diagram
 Precode
 Predictive replacement
13-54
Key Terms (cont.)
 Recoding
 Recording units
 Resistant statistics
 Sampling units
 Stem-and-leaf display
 Survey activation
Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
13-55
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Critical Thinking Assignment 1: Module-2 & 3
Deadline: End of Week 3
Course Name: Academic Writing and
Research Skills
Student’s Name: Anoud Nasser Ali
Course Code: RES500
Student’s ID Number:210094335
Term:
CRN: 22279
Academic Year:
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out
of 60 marks
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
Regulations:
✓ This assignment is an individual assignment.
✓ Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from
the textbook along with few scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.
✓ Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style
guidelines, citing references as appropriate.
✓ Submit your findings in a 3-4 page document, excluding the title page, abstract and
required reference page, which are never a part of the minimum content
requirements, in the Assignment Dropbox.
✓ It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments to the Turnitin
Originality Check (available under Information folder on your Blackboard) prior to
submitting them to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an
assignment to the Originality Check tool, review the TurnItIn Originality Check –
Student Guide for step-by-step instructions.
An Overview about Assignment submission Time & grades:
Type of Assignment
Posting Date
Due date
Marks
Critical thinking
Week 2
End of Week 3
60
Grace period*
3
* Grace Period: with accepted excuse (accepted by instructor) with deduction of 10% for late submission
Module 2 & 3
Assignment-I: Topic selection & research questions (draft) (60 points)
days
A topic of research should be chosen. It can be either a research paper or a startup
concept. Once the topic is finalized, the draft research questions (based on which
objectives of the study will be formed) must be developed (not more than three).
Each selection must be discussed in detail with logic and rationale. Reasons for
the topic should be discussed first followed by discussion on selection of each of
the research questions.
Topic/ Objective Selection and Research Questions
Social media as a marketing tool
Research Questions
While developing advertisement strategies, entities should consider online marketing
as a possible tool. It could turn out to be the most effective and economical tool for
advertising, as it offers some advantages for both businesses and consumers at large. As the
company looks forward to developing ways of establishing economical and effective online
marketing methods, it is required for business operands to understand the diversity in social
media marketing. Therefore, one must be able to answer the following questions:
1.
What are the recent and current trends in social media applicable to
marketing?
2.
What are people’s thoughts on social media advertising?
3.
What role have digital networks had in influencing customer retention
and purchase behaviour?
4.
What are some ways that businesses can use social media to improve
consumer interaction?
5.
What are the most crucial aspects of good social media marketing?
Research Objective
Main Objective
To explore the role of social media as a marketing tool.
Specific Objectives
a)
To understand the essential elements of social media advertising,
b)
To review the current trends in social media marketing techniques and
possibly include social media applications in the company’s marketing strategy.
c)
To review people’s attitudes on social media marketing; to understand
the role of digital networks in influencing customer loyalty and purchase perspectives.
The reason for the selection of the objectives
Main Objective
Social media’s role as a marketing tool
The Internet has developed into a very important and well-known virtual arena. The
technology is used for media websites and is an efficient approach for digitally promoting
your company and products. The impact of technology is obvious, as you may reach a large
number of people within minutes of releasing an ad, cutting your costs while maintaining that
your ads reach your ideal customers with these numerous online advertising. In comparison to
magazine or television advertising, the World Wide Web has access to more than half of the
worldwide people. Companies must not miss out on the potential to advertise on such virtual
platforms, where they can access the maximum possible audience contrasted to magazine or
television advertising (Paquette, 2013).
A label’s digital footprint on any channel is an excellent approach to engage
consumers and establish a special connection. Social marketing is one of the most costeffective ways to sell your business identity. Using numerous sales techniques available on
such social sites, you can take the chance and promote your items more cost-effectively. The
benefit of using social media websites to boost your brand is that you don’t have to depend on
commercials or advertising broadcasts. Constantly producing meaningful data can aid in the
development of a social media profile. It is feasible to understand about target audiences’
purchasing habits using digital platforms (Paquette, 2013).
Specific Objectives
a)
To understand the essential elements of social media advertising.
It is essential to run an overview of the fundamental compartments in successful social
media marketing. Screening and tracking open debates and shared information for
occurrences of companies, commodities, solutions, inquiries, or other phrases to find and
comprehend patterns is listening. The use of multimedia to grab publicity and circulation to
position a company or organization as competent and trustworthy and produce new
prospective buyers is known as content creation. Relations is the practice of interacting with
another person personally and using a combination of attention, lead generation, and
communication capabilities to establish confidence and commitment. Advertisements are any
sponsored operations that magnify information or seek opinions or reactions related to the
product. Another element is reading statistics and analyzing their intentions (Constantinides,
2014).
b)
To review the current trends in social media marketing techniques
and possibly include social media applications in the company’s marketing
strategy.
There is a recent advancement in Artartificialtelligence in chatbots, which create
communication environments for businesses online. Through customized applications, such as
chatbots, it is easier for the industry to gain personalized experiences with clients. Content
creation is a crucial aspect of successful online bidding and advertisement. In social media
advertising research, virtual digital brand networks are a prominent subject that comprises
online gatherings of customers with the same interest in a given brand, thus forming a brand
community (Erdoğmuş & Cicek, 2012).
Viral marketing has grown into an information system for retailers’ brands and items.
Since viral online marketing targets the desired demographic more appropriately, it is
significantly more successful. Viral communication provides marketers’ greater creative
freedom through a more individualized and customized message distribution channel,
enhancing the chance of reaching out to an audience that is sometimes impossible to reach
(Erdoğmuş & Cicek, 2012).
c)
To review people’s attitudes on social media marketing; to
understand the role of digital networks in influencing customer loyalty and
purchase perspectives.
These contents are derived from social media users’ perceptions and opinions and
reflect the perceptions and views of social media users. Consequently, social currency arises
when individuals share i

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