PHC 331 Saudi Electronic Role of Nutrition in Chronic Disease Epidemiology Essay


  • Respond to at least two (2) of your classmates Your response to your classmate should be substantive in nature and may do one of the following, for example:
  1. State agreements and provide additional supportive evidence or examples
  2. Ask additional questions for clarification or provide additional ideas or perspectives on the answer
  3. Advance the participant’s ideas further by providing additional references or support and providing feedback on the participant’s experience or perspectives.
  4. State disagreements, if any, but provide evidence or support, using a professional tone and netiquette.
  5. Aviod the plagiarism
  6. Do not forget the references for each response
  7. The 2 descussion need for seperate responce in attachment file

1-zaki alwabari
Discussion # 1
Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are conditions that affect the lungs in general,
including the airways and other components. More than half of all cases of obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD) are caused by chronic airway obstruction (also known as
COPD). In addition to exposure to cigarette smoke, additional risk factors include
pollution in the air, exposure to chemicals and dusts in the workplace, and a history of
recurrent lower respiratory infections in infancy (Halpin & Agusti, 2020). CRDs cannot
be cured; however, there are a variety of treatments available that may help manage
symptoms and improve quality of life for those who live with these disorders. These
treatments focus on opening airways and reducing feelings of being short of breath.
Methods of prevention of CRD
Quit smoking. Smoking harms your lungs and puts you at greater risk for lung cancer
and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This is due to the fact that when
you burn anything, you’re putting hazardous chemicals into your lungs (toxins and
carcinogens). Do not begin smoking if you have never done so. When it comes to
quitting smoking, it’s never too late. There are a variety of successful drugs and
programs available to help you stop smoking.
Avoid second and third hand smoke. Smoking increases your chances of getting the
same ailments that plague smokers. Whether you’re at home, work, or in your vehicle,
don’t let anybody smoke (Soriano & Moradi, 2020). Avoid inhaling lingering cigarette
vapors that attach to walls and furniture and combine with other indoor pollutants to
generate lung-damaging chemicals. Avoiding third-hand smoke is also important. Your
carpets need to be cleaned. Use low-VOC paints on the walls. Smoke-free hotel rooms
may be rented via a travel agency.
Receive your vaccination. Getting vaccinated is beneficial for everyone, but it’s
particularly critical for those with lung illness (Soriano & Moradi, 2020). If you have a
serious lung condition or are over 65, you should additionally get a pneumonia
Be sure to wear a mask. Toxic levels of dust, vapors, and mist may be present in the
workplace for Canadian employees. Poor ventilation, closed-in working environments,
and a rise in temperature all contribute to the spread of illness (Soriano & Moradi,
2020). Avoid inhaling harmful vapors from chemicals, solvents, and paints, since these
may cause respiratory problems. Always wear a mask while working with chemicals and
let others know if the circumstances are harmful. Take advantage of work-sponsored
health initiatives, such as lung screenings and flu vaccinations.
Halpin, D. M., Faner, R., Sibila, O., Badia, J. R., & Agusti, A. (2020). Do chronic
respiratory diseases or their treatment affect the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection?. The
Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(5), 436-438.
Soriano, J. B., Kendrick, P. J., Paulson, K. R., Gupta, V., Abrams, E. M., Adedoyin, R.
A., … & Moradi, M. (2020). Prevalence and attributable health burden of chronic
respiratory diseases, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of
Disease Study 2017. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(6), 585-596.
Discussion #2
The burden of CRDs in Saudi Arabia (KSA) is increasing rapidly due to the massive
industrialization, socio-economic development, changing lifestyles, urbanization, and
demographic transition. Tobacco smoking is the primary risk factor for CRDs (Soriano et
al., 2020). Most KSA citizens smoke cigarettes containing toxic tar that blocks the air
passages, causing breathing problems, asthma, and other lung diseases. The second
risk factor is air pollution from chemicals such as insecticides, carbon monoxide from
burning fuels, and industrial emissions like sulphur dioxide (Shin et al., 2021).
Household activities like burning garbage, rubber, and volatile compounds in paints also
increase the risk of CRDs. Furthermore, allergens like deodorants, perfumes, pollen
grains from trees, and detergents cause CRDs. Dust is also a significant risk factor for
CRDs as it blocks airways.
Although CBDs are incurable, they can be prevented or treated by forms to opening air
passages to enhance breathing and control symptoms. The primary prevention
measure is quitting tobacco smoking and increasing physical exercise (Troosters et al.,
2019). The second measure is neutralizing industrial gases before disposing of them.
Also, CRDs can be prevented by controlled use of allergens, like body sprays, perfumes
and deodorants. Farm chemicals like pesticides and insecticides should not be used
near homes or human residents. Plastic and rubber wastes should be recycled rather
than burned. In addition, people should avoid dust by sprinkling water or planting grass
in their environments. Inhaled corticosteroid medicines help relieve symptoms and open
airways if affected by CRDs.
Shin, S., Bai, L., Burnett, R. T., Kwong, J. C., Hystad, P., van Donkelaar, A. … & Chen,
H. (2021). Air pollution is a risk factor for incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
and asthma. A 15-year population-based cohort study. American journal of respiratory
and critical care medicine, 203(9), 1138-1148.
Soriano, J. B., Kendrick, P. J., Paulson, K. R., Gupta, V., Abrams, E. M., Adedoyin, R.
A., … & Moradi, M. (2020). Prevalence and attributable health burden of chronic
respiratory diseases, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of
Disease Study 2017. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(6), 585-596.
Troosters, T., Blondeel, A., Rodrigues, F. M., Janssens, W., & Demeyer, H. (2019).
Strategies to increase physical activity in chronic respiratory diseases. Clinics in Chest
Medicine, 40(2), 397-404.

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