MGT 324 Saudi Electronic University Public Administration Paper

Description


‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬
‫وزارة التعليم‬
‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 2
Public Management (MGT 324)
Due Date: 06/08/2022 @ 23:59
Course Name: Public Management
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT324
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: Summer Semester
CRN:
Academic Year:2021-22-Summer
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name: Ms. Maryam H Alsobhi
Students’ Grade: /15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY








The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Learning Outcomes:
Demonstrate different management and leadership styles for different situations (LO 3.1)
Develop the ability to rise to ethical issues and challenges in the context of public management (LO 3.3)
Analyze data for public management policies (LO 3.8)
Use information technology for fast and effective means of communication to address public management issues 3.2
Assignment Question(s):
1. Part 1 (Read Chapter 6) (5 Marks)
a. Discuss the idea of federalism. Write a detailed note on the models used to explain how
the federalist system works. (2 Mark)
b. Explain in detail the two types of federal grants. (1.5 Marks)
c. Discuss various types of shared services. (1.5 Marks)
2. Part 2 (Read Chapter 8 and 10) (5Marks)
a. Define the concept of program evaluations. Discuss various methods of collecting
empirical data. Write two advantages and disadvantages for each method. (2 Marks)
b. Discuss various theories of leadership. Briefly explain the types of leadership power.
(3 Marks)
3. Part 3 (Read Chapter 11 and 12.) (5Marks).
a. What are ethics? Discuss the need for administrative ethics. (1.5 Marks)
b. Write a short note on fourteen principles of ethical conduct for Federal Employees. (1
Mark)
c. Discuss the role of technology in present day organizations. What security challenges
are faced by the public organization? Discuss the role of knowledge management in
present day organizations? (2.5 Marks)
Support your answers for each part of the assignment with proper references.
Answers
1. Answer2. Answer3. Answer-
Public Administration:
An Introduction
Marc Holzer, PhD
Dean and Board of Governors Professor
School of Public Affairs and Administration
Rutgers University – Newark, New Jersey
Richard W. Schwester, PhD
Associate Professor
John Jay College of Criminal Justice
The City University of New York (CUNY)
ROUTLEDGE
Routledge
Taylor & Francis Group
LONDON AND NEW YORK
First published 2011 by M.E. Sharpe
Published 2015 by Routledge
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711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA
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Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by
any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,
including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Notices
No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to
persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise,
or from any use of operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas
contained in the material herein.
Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and
knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or
experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should
be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for
whom they have a professional responsibility.
Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and
are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.
While every effort was made to contact copyright holders of the materials
printed here, we apologize for any inadvertent omissions. If acknowledgement
is missing, it would be appreciated if the publisher were contacted
so that this can be rectified in any future edition.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Holzer, Marc.
Public administration : an introduction / by Marc Holzer and Richard W. Schwester.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978–0–7656–2120–7 (pbk)
1. Public administration. 2. Public administration—Decision making. 3. Policy
sciences. I. Schwester, Richard Wilmot, 1977– II. Title.
JF1351.H65 2011
351—dc22
2010040045
About the Authors
Marc Holzer
Dean Holzer (MPA, PhD University of Michigan) is Dean of
the School of Public Affairs and Administration, and Board of
Governors Professor of Public Affairs and Administration,
at Rutgers University’s Newark Campus. He is a Fellow of
the National Academy of Public Administration and a Past
President of the American Society of Public Administration.
Since 1975, he has directed the National Center for Public
Performance, and he is the founder and editor-in-chief of the
journals Public Performance and Management Review and Public Voices, and is the
co-founder/co-editor of the Chinese Public Administration Review. He has also
recently founded the Public Performance Measurement and Reporting Network. His
research, service, and teaching has been honored by awards from the National
Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, the American Society
of Public Administration, and the Chinese Public Administration Society. He has
published well over one hundred books, monographs, chapters and articles.
Richard W. Schwester
Professor Schwester (MA, PhD Rutgers University) is an
Associate Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice at
the City University of New York. His research interests include
the use of technology in government, e-government, prison
privatization, critical incidents, and inter-local shared services. Some of Professor Schwester’s most recent work appears
in Public Budgeting and Finance, Public Performance and
Management Review, Public Administration Quarterly,
International Journal of Public Administration, and the International Journal of
Organization Theory and Behavior.
Public Administration: An Introduction
iii
PREFACE
We have written a textbook that is distinct from the dozens of public administration
texts now in the academic marketplace. Our vision is a unique blend of substance
and style—a text that is both informative and enlivening, capturing the evolving nature of the field.
A unique aspect of this volume vis-à-vis other textbooks is the extensive use of
visuals. Artwork depicts bureaucratic issues, reinforcing each chapter’s themes
and creating an informative and aesthetically engaging textbook. Charts, graphs,
diagrams, and illustrations add dimensions to the text’s overviews of public
administration.
Of course, this text covers the traditional, essential elements of public administration such as organizational theory, human resource management, leadership, program evaluation, budgeting, and the politics of public administration. But it strives
to do so in a contemporary way, addressing, for example, the changing role of intergovernmental relations in Chapter 6, including the federalist structure as well
as interlocal shared services and regional consolidation initiatives.
Public performance is treated as an indispensable subfield of public administration. Chapter 7 is devoted to performance-related topics such as knowledge sharing and training, total quality management, performance measurement, and the
social aspects of organizational performance. Although these topics may be present
throughout traditional texts, they are usually scattered over several chapters, underemphasizing the importance of public performance. Given the current economic
climate, a focus on efficiency and effectiveness is increasingly important in the field
of public administration.
The emergence of e-government and the growing role of technology in public administration are introduced in Chapter 12. Technology has and will continue to
change the way we interact and transact business with government on a daily
basis. This chapter delves into emerging technologies of knowledge management,
Geospatial Information Systems (GIS), the use of Internet applications as participatory and service delivery media, 311 call centers, and computer mapping
programs.
As a departure from the more orthodox model typical of other texts, Chapter 13 of
this book examines the field of public administration and public service through
the lens of popular culture. Countering the all-too-common image of bumbling bureaucrats, this chapter demonstrates that dedicated public servants add a great deal
of value to the services government has promised its citizens. This chapter also provides helpful resources for people interested in engaging with government and professional networks that address critical quality-of-life issues.
iv
PREFACE
Each chapter is complemented by key terms and supplementary readings. Beyond
those “standard” resources that are present in any introductory text, video cases
and simulations offer a gateway to engaging students, encouraging them to immerse themselves in virtual problem solving experiences—testing theory and skills
through real-time practical applications. Students are challenged to evaluate the
actions and decisions of public administrators and elected officials based on the
theoretical models and best practices provided in the specific chapter. These cases
focus on single and multisector issues that allow for the best collaborative thinking
of those students evaluating the problem. The simulations, also tailored to each
chapter topic, offer students a place to apply theory to practice in a decisionmaking role rather than in an evaluative one as is with the case studies. Students
will deal with issues related to unemployment, budgeting, the environment, crime,
and education. These computer- and Internet-based learning tools allow students
to test their decision-making skills and to evaluate the results of those decisions in
a pure learning environment—applying theory to practice. All of the electronic resources are free to the user—avoiding additional costs to students and representing a sample of similarly accessible resources on the Web, YouTube, and other
media outlets.
This text, then, is very much a dynamic learning system rather than a static volume. We expect that it will not only enliven the teaching of public administration
but will markedly improve the learning experience and help motivate students of
public service to become problem-solving public servants.
Our thanks to the team that helped us construct this text and whose research
and critiques improved it immensely: Dan Bromberg, Peter Hoontis, Iryna
Illiash, Jyldyz Kasymova, Anna Bolette Lind-Valdan, Emily Michaud, Yetunde
Odugbesan, and Ginger Swiston.
This book could not have been completed without the assistance of a number of
dedicated individuals. In particular, we wish to thank Harry Briggs, Elizabeth
Granda, Angela Piliouras, Stacey Victor, and Jim Wright.
Public Administration: An Introduction
v
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
Public Administration:
An Indispensable Part of Society . . . . . . . . 2
Government Requires Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
What Do We Get for All of These Resources? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
How Government Is Organized to Deliver Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
How Government Serves Others. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
What, Then, Is Public Administration?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Key Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
CHAPTER 2
Organizational Theory
and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Theories of Managerial Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
The Classical Management Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
The Neo-Classical School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
The Human Side of Organizational Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Contemporary Organizational Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Structural Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Systems Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
W. Edwards Deming and Japanese Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Organizational Economic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Organizational Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
National Performance Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
CHAPTER 3
Managing Human Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Human Resources Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Productive Human Resource Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Cultivating and Maintaining a High-Quality Diverse Workforce . . . . . . . 91
Creating a Quality Work Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
CHAPTER 4
Public Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
How Decisions Are Made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
The Nature of Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Theoretical Models of Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Dysfunctions in Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Public Administration: An Introduction
vii
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
CHAPTER 5
Politics and Public Administration . . . . 172
The Intersection of Politics and Administration . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Reform and Neutrality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
The Reality of Bureaucratic Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Checking Bureaucratic Discretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Case Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
CHAPTER 6
Intergovernmental Relations . . . . . . . . . . 198
The Layers of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
The Idea of Federalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Interlocal Shared Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Improving Performance via Intragovernmental
and Intergovernmental Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 7
Public Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Improving Government Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
The Importance of Knowledge Sharing and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Total Quality Management: Customer Focus
and Responsive Public Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Issues in Organizational Responsiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Measuring Performance to Improve Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
The Role of Privatization in Government Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
CHAPTER 8
Program Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
What is Program Evaluation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
How to Collect Empirical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Conducting Evaluations and the Importance of Stakeholders . . . . . . . 266
Ethical Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
CHAPTER 9
Public Budgeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Budgeting Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Public Administration: An Introduction
ix
The Federal Budget Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Types of Budgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Where Do Governments Get This Money? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Theories of Budgeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
CHAPTER 10
Public-Sector Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Leading People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Management Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Prevailing Leadership Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Types of Leadership Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
CHAPTER 11
Ethics and Public Administration . . . . . 348
Administrative Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
What Are Ethics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Bureaucracy and Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Formal Rules and Bureaucratic Discretion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
x
TABLE OF CONTENTS
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
CHAPTER 12
Technology and
Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
High Tech Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Technology Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
The Network and Its Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Knowledge Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
The Basics: Database Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Convergence and Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
The Connected Society: Trends and
Opportunities Facing Public Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
CHAPTER 13
Public Service and
Popular Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Public Servants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
The Image of the Public Servant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
The Real Public Servant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Capturing the Attention of Youth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Public Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Public Administration: An Introduction
xi
Networks and Professional Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
CHAPTER 14
The Future of
Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
The Evolution of Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Governance Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Performance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Citizen Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Globalization: The Internationalization of
Public Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
E-Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Transparency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Key Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
xii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Public Administration:
An Introduction
Public Administration: An Introduction
xiii
CHAPTER 1
Public Administration:
An Indispensable
Part of Society
This chapter introduces the reader to the foundational
elements of government and public administration. It reviews
many of the essential characteristics of government, such as
revenue collection, government expenditures, and government
workforce. It also presents an overview of the services that
government provides and how those services affect citizens
on a daily basis. Furthermore, this chapter constructs a
working definition of public administration and discusses key
concepts that are essential to the field.
2
CHAPTER 1
“The care of human life and happiness…
“Management is the science of which
is the first and only legitimate object
organizations are but experiments.”
of good government.”
JOHN CONSTABLE
THOMAS
JEFFERSON
English Romantic
Painter
Third President
of the United States
(1776-1837)
(1743–1846)
Environmental Police Unit Officers with the Department of Sanitation of
New York take precautions when dealing with hazardous waste.
Postal Workers Mural
Public Administration: An Indispensible Part of Society
3
GOVERNMENT REQUIRES RESOURCES
There is no question that government spends a great deal of money. And theoretically—just like any other organization—the government must make money before
it can spend money. So, where does government get its money and how does it
spend it? How does this process affect people on a daily basis? These are just some
of the questions we will answer in this introductory chapter.
Let’s start with the basics. Like all organizations, the government typically must
take in money before expending it. In rare situations, government can spend money
it did not collect; that will be discussed in Chapter 9, “Public Budgeting.” Unlike
organizations in the private or nonprofit sectors, government has the power to tax.
Taxation, one of the federal government’s constitutional rights under the founding
documents of the United States, is necessary to support the three branches of government, particularly the executive branch with its wide
array of functions. State constitutions extend that taxing
“What made you
power to states, which then authorize counties, cities,
choose this career
towns, villages, and special districts to levy taxes.
is what made me
go into politics—a
chance to serve, to
make a difference.
It is not just a job.
It is a vocation.”
Governments are considered sovereign bodies, holding the
highest authority in a specific region; therefore, government is granted unique powers under which it may implement its authority. Taxation is one of those unique powers.
Unlike companies, which make money by selling a product
or a service, the government takes in funds by taxing its citTONY BLAIR
izenry. These taxes are collected by local, state, and federal
Prime Minister of
GreatBritain
agencies and pay for a broad range of services that meet
citizens’ daily needs. The nature of these needs will be discussed throughout this chapter, but first we will sketch out the amount of money
government spends on a yearly basis.
In 2007 (the latest year for which the actual state and local spending figures
were available at the time this book was written) the federal, state, and local
governments in the United States spent over $4 trillion. Federal spending represented about 63 percent of all spending by governments. The U.S. federal government spent about $2.7 trillion, and state and local governments spent about
$1.6 trillion.
To understand the impact that government spending has on the economy of the
United States, it is sometimes helpful to use economic terms. One often-used term
for gauging the nation’s economy is the gross domestic product (GDP). The GDP is
a measure based on the amount of goods and services produced within the borders
of the United States. There are numerous ways to measure this figure, but the most
straightforward is simply to add together the total amount of money spent on pro-
4
CHAPTER 1
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
5
U.S. Supreme Court
Department of
Justice
Department of
the Interior
Department of
Labor
Department of
Defense
Independant Establishments
and
Government Corporations
Department of
State
Department of
Education
Department of
Transportation
Department of
Energy
Source: Washburn University School of Law, U.S. Federal Resources, www.washlaw.edu/doclaw/orgchart/mainog.html.
Department of
Commerce
Department of
Agriculture
Federal Judicial Center
Drug Control Policy
Trade Representative
Department of
Treasury
Department of
Health and
Human Serv.
Department of
Veterans
Affairs
Department of
Housing and
Urban Dev.
Sentencing Commission
U.S. Tax Court
Court of Military Appeals
Science & Technology
The White House
Congr. Budget Office
Court International Trade
Environmental Quality
OMB
Technology Assesment
Library of Congress
U.S. Court of Appeals
The President
Executive Office of the President
GPO
GAO
Judicial
Branch
Executive
Branch
The Constitution
Legislative
Branch
FIGURE 1.1 – U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
ducing these goods and services. Understandably, one may think that the GDP
measures only the private sector’s economic activity; in reality, however, public sector activity makes up a large percentage of the GDP. Federal, state, and local government spending was approximately 32 percent of the U.S. GDP in 2007 (see
FIGURE 1.2 – TOTAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES (IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
State and Local
Government Expenditure:
$1591.1
Federal Government Outlays:
$2730.2
Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 200. “Budget of the U.S.
Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy09/hist.html.
FIGURE 1.3 – GOVERNMENT SPENDING AS A PERCENTAGE OF GDP (IN BILLIONS
OF DOLLARS)
GDP of the United States (2007) in cur

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