PHC 331 SEU Chronic Respiratory Diseases Discussion & Replies


Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are diseases of the airways and other structures of the lung. Some of the most common is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and occupational lung diseases. Please give an overview of the risk factors of CRD and methods of prevention of CRD in KSA?

Instructions and the Due Dates for Completing the Discussion Questions:

Please post your original response by Wednesday 27/07/2022 at 11:59 pm. 

Respond to at least two (2) of your classmates by 01/08/2022 at 11:59 pm. Your response to your classmate should be substantive in nature and may do one of the following, for example:

ALI ALAMEERDiscussion phc 331Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD)Risk Factors of CRD            Chronic respiratory disease accounted for 9% of all non-communicable disease deaths in the Arab world. The risks of CRD include metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors (Mohammad et al., 2021). Smoking is a significant behavioral factor in chronic respiratory disease, with its prevalence in the KSA estimated at 20%, and 83% of smokers begin the habit at 15 years (Alsubaiei et al., 2018). This practice predisposes them to CRD. Physical inactivity also contributes to the risk of CRD. Over 96% of Saudi men and 98% of women do not meet the recommended 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week years (Alsubaiei et al., 2018). The inactivity predisposes the individuals to lifestyle and metabolic problems, including obesity, which further increase the risk of CRD.  Methods of Preventing CRD in KSA            The government has invested in smoking cessation campaigns via clinics and sensitization efforts. There are over 70 smoking cessation clinics, and smoking is banned in government sectors, public institutions, and universities (Alsubaiei et al., 2018). A ban on smoking advertising has also been implemented. It is important to sensitize Saudis on the importance of physical exercise and healthy eating habits. Importantly, access to exercise facilities should be facilitated for all persons to ensure that Saudis keep fit. Besides, people should be sensitized to healthy eating and avoid foods that predispose them to CRD.    ReferencesAlsubaiei, M.E., et al. (2018). Factors influencing management of chronic respiratory diseases in general and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in particular in Saudi Arabia: an overview. Ann Thorac Med, 13, 3, 144-149. Mohammad, Y., et al. (2021). Chronic respiratory diseases in the Arab world. In Handbook of healthcare in the Arab world. Springer.

soud alshammeriDiscussionOverview of the risk factors of CRDWhat Causes COPD?Over time, exposure to irritants that damage your lungs and airways can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The main cause of COPD is smoking, but nonsmokers can get COPD too.COPD Risk Factors:Smoking is the biggest risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It increases your risk of both developing and dying from COPD. Approximately 85 to 90 percent of COPD cases are caused by smoking. Female smokers are nearly 13 times as likely to die from COPD as women who have never smoked; male smokers are nearly 12 times as likely to die from COPD as men who have never smoked.prevention of CRD in KSA?Saudi Arabia is a positive exception in the health-care system in the Middle Eastern region due to the government giving health services a high priority.[14] According to the WHO, Saudi Arabia is ranked 26 of 190 countries in terms of the quality of the health-care systemProtection of Persons at High Risk against COPD:* Avoiding exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution and irritants.* Avoiding exposure to fluctuation of weather and dust.* Eating healthy food like fruits, vegetables, meat, fish and chicken.* Medical examination of the lung (spirometry), to assess the functionality of the lung for those over 45 years of age.* Taking the seasonal influenza vaccine for prevention of recurrent respiratory tract inflammations.* Taking the necessary precautions and abiding by safety instructions in factories and work places. Reference Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). (2018, March 15). Ministry of Health. Retrieved July 26, 2022, from…What Causes COPD. (n.d.). Lung American Association. Retrieved July 26, 2022, from…


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